Portal:Questions for Final Examination in Physiology (1LF, GM)

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The cell[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. The cell (cell membrane, nucleus, organelles, function)
  2. Cell membrane
  3. Transport across cell membranes
  4. Ion channels
  5. The ionic basis of the resting potential
  6. Ionic currents underlying the action potential
  7. Neuromuscular transmission
  8. Excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle
  9. Contraction in skeletal muscle
  10. Contraction in smooth muscle
  11. Cytoskeleton
  12. Sensory transduction
  13. Tissue maintenance

Body fluids[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Body fluids
  2. Homeostasis
  3. Composition and functions of blood
  4. Blood plasma
  5. Organic and inorganic components of blood plasma
  6. Plasmatic proteins
  7. White blood cells
  8. Granulocytes
  9. Lymphocytes, lymphatic tissue
  10. Monocyte-macrophage system
  11. Thrombocytes
  12. Red Blood Cells
  13. Blood cell formation
  14. Hemoglobin
  15. Hemostasis
  16. Hemocoagulation
  17. Coagulation factors; fibrinolysis
  18. Blood Groups
  19. Buffer systems in blood
  20. Mechanisms of innate immunity
  21. Systems of acquired immunity
  22. The cell mediated immunity
  23. Defensive properties of neutrophils and monocyte-macrophages
  24. Formation and function of antibodies


Blood circulation[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Electrical activity of the heart
  2. Conducting myocardial system
  3. The ionic basis of the resting potential in the heart
  4. Ionic currents underlying the cardiac action potential and pacemaker potential
  5. The role of calcium in the cardiac muscle
  6. Sequence of depolarization and repolarization of atria and ventricles
  7. Origin of the electrocardiogram
  8. Electrocardiographic recording
  9. The normal electrocardiogram
  10. Excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac muscle
  11. Mechanical properties of the cardiac muscle
  12. Events of the cardiac cycle
  13. Myocardial work
  14. Function of cardiac valves, heart sounds
  15. Pressure, volume, and flow during the cardiac cycle
  16. Cardiac output, regulation
  17. Blood pressure in the heart, arteries, capillaries and veins
  18. Blood pressure in the right heart and in pulmonary circulation
  19. Arterial pressure pulse
  20. Determinants of the arterial blood pressure
  21. Control of vascular resistance
  22. Arteriolar tone and range of vascular control
  23. Function of the microvascular network
  24. Exchange of materials in capillaries
  25. Interstitial fluid and lymph
  26. Venous return and its relation to cardiac output
  27. Receptors in cardiovascular system
  28. The baroreceptor regulation of the cardiovascular system
  29. Cardiopulmonary receptors
  30. Neural control of the cardiovascular functions
  31. Control of the cardiac output
  32. Control of the blood pressure
  33. Control of the blood volume
  34. Control of the regional blood flow
  35. Intrinsic regulation of the cardiovascular system
  36. Stroke volume - the length-tension relationship
  37. Arterial pressure and stroke volume
  38. Heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output
  39. Hormonal regulation of the cardiovascular system
  40. Fetal and neonatal circulation
  41. The coronary circulation
  42. The circulation of the lungs
  43. Cerebral circulation
  44. Splachnic circulation


The Respiratory System[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Movements of the thoracic cage
  2. Ventilation
  3. Airways, the anatomical dead space, airway resistance
  4. Lung volumes and capacities
  5. Pleural and alveolar pressures
  6. Lung compliance and elastance, surface tension
  7. Work of breathing
  8. Alveolar ventilation
  9. Ventilation and perfusion in lungs
  10. Alveolar and atmospheric air - composition
  11. Exchange of gases in lungs and tissues
  12. Diffusion and transport of respiratory gases
  13. Transport of oxygen in blood
  14. Transport of carbon dioxide in blood
  15. Respiratory rhythmogenesis
  16. Chemoreceptor control of respiration
  17. Respiration in high altitudes
  18. Respiratory reflexes
  19. pH regulation in body fluids


The Digestive System[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Motility of the gastrointestinal system
  2. Chewing and swallowing, esophageal motility
  3. Gastric motility
  4. Intestinal motility, defecation
  5. Cellular mechanism of secretion
  6. Function of salivary glands
  7. Gastric secretion
  8. Pancreatic secretion
  9. Secretory function of the liver
  10. Intestinal secretion
  11. Gastric digestion
  12. Digestion in the small intestine
  13. Digestion in the colon
  14. Digestion and absorption of proteins
  15. Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates
  16. Digestion and absorption of lipids
  17. Basic mechanisms of the intestinal transport
  18. Water and electrolyte absorption
  19. Absorption of vitamins
  20. Functions of the liver
  21. Metabolism of carbohydrates
  22. Metabolism of proteins
  23. Metabolism of lipids
  24. Dietary balance
  25. Temperature regulation


The excretory system[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. The physiology of the skin
  2. Functional morphology of the kidney
  3. Blood flow in the kidney, its regulation
  4. Nephron, structure and function of its individual parts
  5. Glomerular filtration, its regulation
  6. Processing of the filtrate in the proximal and distal tubules
  7. Renal mechanisms of the ion transport
  8. Renal transport mechanisms of the organic compounds
  9. Examinations of the renal function, clearance
  10. Control of the renal functions
  11. Control of extracellular fluid osmolality
  12. Control of extracellular fluid volume, sodium and potassium balance
  13. Body acid-base state and its regulation
  14. Renal regulation of the acid-base balance
  15. Micturition


The endocrine system[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Mechanisms of cell signaling
  2. Synthesis, release, disposal, and regulation of hormone secretion
  3. Hormone action
  4. The adrenocortical hormones
  5. Growth hormone, growth factors, and control of the body growth
  6. Regulation of the carbohydrate metabolism
  7. Insulin secretion, action, and regulation
  8. Hypothalamo-hypophyseal relations
  9. The thyroid hormones secretion and its regulation
  10. Thyroid hormones action
  11. The adrenal medulla
  12. Stress and emergency reaction
  13. Glucocorticoids
  14. Mineralocorticoids
  15. Control of the calcium and phosphate balance
  16. Hormones of the anterior pituitary
  17. Secretion and physiological effects of catecholamines
  18. Neurohypophyseal hormones
  19. Biogenic peptides, neuropeptides, local chemical mediators
  20. Endocrine and Biological Rhythms
  21. Sexual differentiation
  22. Reproductive and hormonal functions of the male
  23. Reproductive and hormonal functions of the female
  24. The ovarial cycle
  25. Physiology of pregnancy
  26. Functions of the placenta
  27. Lactation
  28. Fetal and neonatal physiology


Principles of neurophysiology[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Structure and function of nerve cells
  2. Membrane Potentials
  3. Transformation of Synaptic Input into Action Potential
  4. Action potentials and its propagation
  5. Structure and function of axons, dendrites and dendritic spines
  6. Structure and function of synapses
  7. Synaptic Transmission
  8. Postsynaptic potentials
  9. Transmitters in the nervous system
  10. Integration activity of neurons
  11. Functions of the Neuronal Circuits
  12. Reflex arc, classification of reflexes
  13. Organization of inhibitory circuits
  14. Milieu of the central nervous system
  15. Glial cells, brain barrier systems

The motor system[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Excitation-contraction coupling in the skeletal muscle
  2. Neuromuscular junction and ion changes during the muscle contraction
  3. Physiology of the muscle contraction, energy requirements
  4. The neural control of movements
  5. The peripheral motor control
  6. Spinal reflexes
  7. Muscle tone and its control
  8. Motor functions of the spinal cord
  9. Motor functions of the brain stem
  10. Motor functions of the basal ganglia
  11. Function of the cerebellum
  12. Cortical control of motor functions


The autonomic nervous system[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Physiology of the smooth muscle contraction
  2. Control of the smooth muscle contraction
  3. Characteristics of sympathetic and parasympathetic action
  4. Autonomic innervation of various structures
  5. The hypothalamic functions
  6. Control of the food intake


The sensory physiology[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Classification of Receptors
  2. Signal transformation in receptor cells
  3. Signal coding
  4. Somatic sensations
  5. Cutaneous receptors
  6. Perception of pain
  7. Function of the external and middle ear
  8. Function of the cochlea
  9. Processing of the auditory signal
  10. The vestibular apparatus
  11. The optics of the eye
  12. The accessory eye organs
  13. Function of the retina
  14. Transmission and processing of the visual signal
  15. The sense of taste
  16. The sense of smell


Integrative function of the CNS[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Function of the spinal cord
  2. Thalamic functions
  3. Function of the reticular system
  4. Function of the limbic system
  5. Function of the cerebral cortex
  6. The association areas of the cerebral cortex
  7. The dominance and specialization of the cerebral hemispheres
  8. Intellectual functions of the brain, language
  9. Mechanisms of the control of behavior
  10. Mechanism of learning and memory
  11. Waking and sleeping
  12. Bioelectrical activity of the CNS