Necrotizing fasciitis

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Necrotizing fasciitis

Necrotizing fasciitis is serious bacterial infectious disease, which affects the fascia and dermis. It is relatively rare, but on the other hand it is a life-threatening disease with a very serious prognosis.

Pathogenesis[edit | edit source]

Streptococcus pyogenes

The causative agent is Streptococcus pyogenes group A. These are bacteria of the normal flora of the skin, rectum or urethra, which most often penetrate the subcutaneous tissue through a small skin lesion or surgical wound. Subsequently, extensive necrosis of the subcutaneous and superficial skin occurs. Necrosis of the subcutaneous tissue is deep and penetrates the fascia, which can also affect it. There is also necrosis of blood vessels and nerves. However, the muscles are affected. Lethality is about 50%, up to half of the patients have a limb amputations.

At-risk groups are:

  • diabetics,
  • immunocompromised and geriatric patients,
  • patients with alcohol and drug abuse,
  • patients on corticotherapy.

It is reported that necrotizing fasciitis can arise as a complication of Cellulite.

Clinical signs[edit | edit source]

Sudden pain in the affected area. There is redness, swelling and soreness around the wound, and purple to blue-gray spots develop rapidly. A bull with a dense red content will also form. The wound may gradually become insensitive. The general symptoms then point to sepsis, sometimes in addition to streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.[1]

Physical finding[edit | edit source]

  • Temperature,
  • Wound pain and redness,
  • Swelling of the skin
  • Crepitus,
  • Later skin necrosis imitating burns pf the III. degrees.

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

Diagnosis is based on the clinical picture, laboratory findings (high inflammatory indicators and high creatine phosphokinase activity), microscopic and culture findings from Exudate, hemo-culture, might be positive. Of the imaging methods, CT examination has its irreplaceable application.

Therapy[edit | edit source]

Early and sufficient radical surgical treatment consisting of removing necrotic tissue - early debridement or amputation. Theoretically, it would be enough to treat the patient with crystalline penicillin IV, but other bacteria ( staphylococci and anaerobes) may also be involved in this disease. Therefore, we prefer "beta-lactam antibiotics" (co-piperacillin, co-ticarcillin, imipenem, meropenem) with clindamycin.

References[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

Literature[edit | edit source]

  • HAVLÍK, Jiří, et al. Infektologie. 2. vydání. Praha : Avicenum, 1990. 393 s. ISBN 80-201-0062-8.

Reference[edit | edit source]

  1. ROZSYPAL, Hanuš. Základy infekčního lékařství. 1. vydání. Praha : Karolinum, 2015. 566 s. ISBN 978-80-246-2932-2.