Correction and compensation of acid-base balance disorders
If, for any reason, the ABR malfunction occurs , the organism begins to make efforts to maintain the pH of the internal environment. In essence, ABR fights the original disorder with another disorder that shifts the pH in the opposite direction. We distinguish two groups of such mechanisms:
Compensation[edit | edit source]
It means that with a metabolic disorder, the pH of the internal environment is maintained by changing respiration. For example, metabolic acidosis is compensated by respiratory alkalosis ; the patient will take labored deep breaths (" Kussmaul breathing ").
Correction[edit | edit source]
- We only talk about correction in the case of ABR metabolic disorders: one metabolic deviation is corrected by another. E.g. a patient with liver failure (and thus with metabolic alkalosis ) will excrete more bicarbonate through the kidneys and acidify the urine less.
Corrective and compensatory mechanisms take time to develop. A change in respiration occurs almost immediately after the occurrence of an ABR disturbance. Respiratory compensatory mechanisms then deepen, reaching a maximum in about 12–24 hours. Compensation and correction at the level of the kidneys is much slower - because some transport mechanisms have to be reregulated, which often requires protein synthesis. These mechanisms reach their maximum in five days.
Links[edit | edit source]
Related articles[edit | edit source]
- Mechanism of maintenance of acid-base balance
- Laboratory examination of acid-base balance
- Disorders of acid-base balance
- Principles of treatment of acid-base balance disorders
- Relationships between acid-base balance and ionogram