Acute bronchitis

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Acute bronchitis is a transient inflammation of the large and medium airways. It can occur on its own or as a part of an inflammation that also affects the surrounding lung parenchyma. It is very common in children.

Etiology[edit | edit source]

Schematic representation of acute bronchitis.

The causative agents are mainly viruses: parainfluenza and influenza, rhinoviruses, adenoviruses (the picture may be similar to pertussis), RSV, but also bacteria (less often): pneumococcus, hemophilus, mycoplasma,…

Clinical picture[edit | edit source]

The main symptom is cough. The disease begins with fever or subfebrile illness with a feeling of general illness. The cough starts as dry, irritating, unproductive, it can be painful. Bronchitis is usually preceeded by inflammation of the upper respiratory tract (rhinosinusitis, nasopharyngitis). The longer the cough lasts, the more likely it is to become productive. In uncomplicated bronchitis - children are not prone, the patient is subfebrile to afebrile, mucus production decreases and the cough disappears in 7-10 days.

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

Physical examination
  • the auscultation of the lungs: crepitations of small, medium and large bubbles, rhonchi– in inspiration and exspiration
  • the percussion is full and clear

Laboratory tests: leukocytes are not elevated (if so, it is probably a bacterial infection).

Functional examination of the lungs: some degree of obstruction.

X-ray of the heart and lungs: normal or slightly accentuated bronchovascular drawing.

Therapy[edit | edit source]

In uncomplicated bronchitis, supportive treatment: fluids, warm humid air, vitamins and antipyretics, bed rest. In dry exhausting cough - expectorants and antitussives. If a bacterial infection is suspected - ATB.

Complications[edit | edit source]

Complications are rare, including otitis media, paranasal sinuses, pneumonia.

References[edit | edit source]

Související články[edit | edit source]

Použitá literatura[edit | edit source]

Kategorie:Pediatrie Kategorie:Pneumologie Kategorie:Vnitřní lékařství Kategorie:Patologie Kategorie:Infekční lékařství