Chronic bronchitis is defined as a chronic productive cough lasting at least three months in two consecutive years, and at the same time, other possible causes of cough - pulmonary ( bronchiectasis ) and non-pulmonary ( heart failure ) are excluded. The disease is further characterized by an obstructive ventilation disorder.
Chronic bronchitis can be considered a component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (the other component being emphysema ).
Etiology[edit | edit source]
- Endogenous causes
- age (incidence increases with age) and male gender (men are affected twice as often as women),
- individual predisposition – atopy, immune disorders,
- sinusitis (sinobronchial syndrome),
- exogenous causes
- smoking – represents probably the most significant risk factor,
- repeated respiratory infections – mainly haemophilic and pneumococcal,
- work and environmental pollution.
Pathology[edit | edit source]
Inflammatory infiltration of the wall of the bronchi, at the same time there are increased and hypertrophic mucus glands in the mucosa (overproduction of mucus). These changes lead to a narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi and thus to an obstructive air flow disorder.
Manifestations of the disease[edit | edit source]
Spirometric examination – obstructive pulmonary ventilation disorder
- Cough – mostly productive,
- mucus hypersecretion ,
- shortness of breath
- hypoxemia to cyanosis – a very advanced symptom,
- pulmonary hypertension – a very advanced symptom, essentially the result of a long-standing lung disease.
Disease types[edit | edit source]
- Simple chronic bronchitis
- Purulent chronic bronchitis
- Obstructive chronic bronchitis
Investigation[edit | edit source]
- Medical history (smoker, work environment, recurrent DCD infection),
- physical examination - may be completely without findings,
- X-ray of the lungs – to rule out infection, bronchogenic carcinoma,
- spirometric examination – reveals an obstructive lung ventilation disorder,
- bronchoscopy - in cases of uncertainty, suspicion of bronchogenic carcinoma .
Therapy[edit | edit source]
The therapy of chronic bronchitis is similar to the therapy of COPD, it involves the administration of inhaled forms of drugs, often in combination.
- Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS),
- inhalation bronchodilators ,
- β 2 agonist (THIRD, SEVEN),
- anticholinergic (SAME, OLD).
Quitting smoking is an integral part of the therapy .
Links[edit | edit source]
Related Articles[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- KLENER, Pavel, et al. Vnitřní lékařství. 3. edition. Praha : Galén, 2006. 285 - 286 pp. ISBN 80-7262-430-X.