Liver involvement in infectious diseases

From WikiLectures

EBV[edit | edit source]

Searchtool right.svg For more information see EBV.
  • hepatomegaly, liver tests are routine
  • often occurs in pneumococcal pneumonia and enterovirus diseases, parainfectious liver disease
  • mild elevation of ALT is also in erythema migrans in Lyme disease

HSV, VZV[edit | edit source]

Searchtool right.svg For more information see Herpesviridae.
  • they can damage the liver, especially in people with reduced immunity

Malaria[edit | edit source]

Searchtool right.svg For more information see Malaria.

Dengue fever[edit | edit source]

'Dengue fever' is a viral disease caused by Flavivirus (Arboviruses) transmitted by mosquitoes. It occurs in tropical Asia, Africa and Central and South America. It mainly affects young people, including children.

The incubation period is 3-7 days, then a sudden febrile condition lasting 3-6 days begins [1] A two-phase process is common. The first phase is accompanied by "high fever and persistent myalgia and arthralgia" ( breakbone fever ). During the second phase, a "maculopapular rash" usually appears, which is most pronounced on the torso, without affecting the soles and palms. At the same time, the cervical nodes enlarge. Complications can be myocarditis or nervous system damage. [2]

'Hemorrhagic form' is manifested by bleeding on the skin, may be accompanied by ascites, vomiting, abdominal pain; progression is manifested by hypotension, hypovolemia, and shock. The cause is a recurrent infection with another serotype of the virus. [2]

[[File:Dengue fever symptoms.svg|thumb|Dengue fever]]<noinclude>{{Infobox - disease | picture = Dengue fever symptoms.svg | capture = Dengue fever symptoms | English = Dengue Fever | latinsky = | causing agent = ''Flavivirus'' ([[Arboviruses]]) | transmission = via the infected blood (mosquito as a vector) | incubation period = 3–7 days | clinic = febrile virosis with exanthema (two-stage course) or severe hemorrhagic fever (bleeding manifestations, nausea,...) <ref name="beneš">{{Citace | typ = kniha | isbn = 978-80-7262-644-1 | příjmení1 = Beneš | jméno1 = Jiří | kolektiv = ano | titul = Infekční lékařství | vydání = 1 | vydavatel = Galén | rok = 2009 | rozsah = 651 | strany = 127, 128 }}</ref> | contagiousness = | treatment = symptomatic | complications = in the case of febrile virosis with exanthema myocarditis, NS damage <ref name="beneš"/> | vaccination = | incidence in the Czech Republic = 29 cases in CZ (year 2014)<ref>{{Citace | typ = web | korporace = Státní zdravotní ústav | kolektiv = ano | url = | název = Infekce v ČR 2015, kumulativně | datum_revize = 2015 | citováno = 2015-11-26 }} </ref> | prevalence in CZ = | mortality around the world = | mortality in CZ = | MKN = {{MKN|A90-A99|A90}} ''classic form'', {{MKN|A90-A99|A91}} ''hemorrhagic fever'' | MeSH ID = {{MeSH ID|D003715}} | MedlinePlus = {{MedlinePlus|001374}} ''classic form'', {{MedlinePlus|001373}} ''hemorrhagic fever'' | Medscape = {{Medscape|215840}} }}
Symptoms of Dengue fever

Diagnostic[edit | edit source]

Specific antibody titer.

Treatment[edit | edit source]


Prognosis[edit | edit source]

Usually good, except the hemorrhagic form.

CMV[edit | edit source]

Searchtool right.svg For more information see CMV.
  • the source of the infection are sick patients or carriers – they excrete the virus in saliva and urine
  • it spreads horizontally (by air, contact, breast milk, transfusion), and persists vertically in the body
  • acquired CMVosis occurs asymptomatically or as mild influenza in immunocompetent individuals, rarely as heart attack
  • hepatitis occurs after transfusion or in immunocompromised individuals
  • congenital CMVosis due to infected mother and/or infected milk
  • either miscarriage or congenital disorders of the CNS, heart, or eyes

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

  • virus isolation, serology

Therapy[edit | edit source]

  • ganciclovir (antiviral)

Leptospirosis[edit | edit source]

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Leptospira interrogans . It is an anthropozoonosis.

Etiology[edit | edit source]

Leptospira belong to the Spirochete family . They are long, motile, strictly aerobic, and spiral bacteria. They do not stain well, but we can observe them using dark microscopy. Hemolysin, wall lipopolysaccharide or phospholipases are involved in it's pathogenicity. They are widespread in the wild and also colonize many animals, some of which excrete them in the urine.

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

Infection most often occurs by ingesting infected water or food, but a person can also become infected by contact with an animal or, for example, by a penetrating injury to the skin. The infectious dose is small, sometimes just a few individual bacteria are enough. The incubation period is about 6-20 days.

In the Czech Republic, leptospirosis occurs mainly after floods.

Clinical picture[edit | edit source]

The course of the disease varies according to the nature of the infectious strain. We distinguish between icteric and anicteric forms.

Icteric form
  • jaundice, myalgia, headache;
  • a marked disparity between high bilirubin and relatively low ALT ;
  • the patient is more at risk of kidney failure and bleeding.
Anicteric form
  • more common , similar to the flu or seasonal meningitis , has a milder course;
  • we find signs of liver and kidney damage;
  • it heals without consequences.

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

  • Based on epidemiological history, significant clinical manifestations;
  • specific Ig in serum;
  • dark microscopy.

Therapy[edit | edit source]

  • Anicteric forms are treated only symptomatically;
  • more severe treated with penicillin or ampicillin ;

References[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

  • HAVLÍK, Jiří. Infektologie. 2. edition. Avicenum, 1990. ISBN 80-201-0062-8.
  • LOBOVSKÁ, Alena. Infekční nemoci. 1. edition. Karolinum, 2001. ISBN 80-246-0116-8.
  1. Dostál, V. et al.:Infectology. Karolinum, Prague, 2004, p. 228
  2. a b