Anthropozoonoses ( zoonoses ) are infectious diseases transmitted from animals to humans.
A person can become the target of these infections while staying in nature, coming into contact with an infected or dead animal or its parts (fur, feces). Pets are also a significant source of infection. Another example is farms, where a person is exposed to contact with livestock and is thus at risk of infection. Carriers can be, for example, arthropods ( ticks , mosquitoes, fleas, lice), mammals, birds, fish.
Transmission[edit | edit source]
The infectious agent comes into contact with humans in a variety of ways (blood-sucking insects, food contamination...). Transmission occurs through direct contact, swallowing, inhalation, through inanimate media (sapronose) or living vectors.
- Gates of entry
- skin – transmission by mere contact or penetration of the pathogen into a small abrasion,
- mucous membrane – most often by breathing the pathogen aerosol (respiratory tract) and food contamination (digestive tract),
- blood – blood-sucking insects can release pathogens when sucking blood ( Plasmodium in the saliva of Anopheles mosquitoes ),
- trauma – in the case of a deeper injury, the pathogen is introduced into the wound (rabies bite).
Etiology[edit | edit source]
Etiological agents include viruses , bacteria , parasites , fungi and prions .
The most common zoonoses in our country:
- salmonellosis ( Salmonella enteritidis , Salmonella typhimurium ; poorly cooked meat or eggs),
- campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter jejuni ; poorly heat treated poultry – grilled chickens),
- yersiniosis ,
- toxoplasmosis ( Toxoplasma gondii ; ingestion of oocysts in cat faeces, poorly cooked meat of the intermediate host),
- tularemia ( Francisella tularensis ; mosquito, tick, handling of an infected hare/rabbit, etc.),
- leptospirosis ( leptospira r. interrogans , Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae , dangerous for humans ; transmitted by rats, with their urine it gets into stagnant water and into food, possibility of infection from sick animals by scratching or biting),
- listeriosis ,
- ornithosis ,
- toxocarosis ( Toxocara cati , Toxocara canis ; food contaminated with cat or dog feces),
- teniosis ,
- erysipeloid ,
- cat-scratch disease ( Bartonella henselae ; scratched by an infected cat).
Diseases transmitted by arthropods include, for example:
- Lyme disease ;
- tick-borne encephalitis ;
- ehrlichiosis – 1) human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (LGE) – ( Anaplasma phagocytophila ; tick vector), 2) human monocytic ehrlichiosis (LME) – ( Anaplasma Chafeensis ; tick vector). Ehrlichiosis is 4 times more common in men than in women.
- tularemia ;
- leishmaniasis - cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral forms. The life cycle of Leishmania occurs between humans and mosquitoes of the genus Phlebotomus.
Links[edit | edit source]
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Reference[edit | edit source]
- CHALUPA,, et al. 2006-01-30 [online]. ©2005. [cit. 2009-12-16]. <http://www1.lf1.cuni.cz/~hrozs/zoopch1.htm>.