From WikiLectures

Leptospirosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Leptospira interrogans . It is an anthropozoonosis.

Etiology[edit | edit source]

Leptospira belong to the Spirochete family . They are long, motile, strictly aerobic, and spiral bacteria. They do not stain well, but we can observe them using dark microscopy. Hemolysin, wall lipopolysaccharide or phospholipases are involved in it's pathogenicity. They are widespread in the wild and also colonize many animals, some of which excrete them in the urine.

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

Infection most often occurs by ingesting infected water or food, but a person can also become infected by contact with an animal or, for example, by a penetrating injury to the skin. The infectious dose is small, sometimes just a few individual bacteria are enough. The incubation period is about 6-20 days.

In the Czech Republic, leptospirosis occurs mainly after floods.

Clinical picture[edit | edit source]

The course of the disease varies according to the nature of the infectious strain. We distinguish between icteric and anicteric forms.

Icteric form
  • jaundice, myalgia, headache;
  • a marked disparity between high bilirubin and relatively low ALT ;
  • the patient is more at risk of kidney failure and bleeding.
Anicteric form
  • more common , similar to the flu or seasonal meningitis , has a milder course;
  • we find signs of liver and kidney damage;
  • it heals without consequences.

Diagnosis[edit | edit source]

  • Based on epidemiological history, significant clinical manifestations;
  • specific Ig in serum;
  • dark microscopy.

Therapy[edit | edit source]

  • Anicteric forms are treated only symptomatically;
  • more severe treated with penicillin or ampicillin ;

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

  • JULÁK, Jaroslav. Introduction to medical bacteriology. 1st edition. Prague: Karolinum, 2006. 404 pp.  ISBN 8024612704 .
  • BEDNÁŘ, Marek, Andrej SOUČEK and Věra FRAŇKOVÁ, et al. Medical microbiology: Bacteriology, virology, parasitology. 1st edition. Prague: Marvil, 1996. 558 pp.  ISBN 8594031505280 .
  • VOTAVA, Miroslav, et al. Medical microbiology special. 1st edition. Brno: Neptun, 2003. 495 pp.  ISBN 80-902896-6-5 .