Acute viral encephalitis

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The result of acute viral encephalitis are neuronal and glia defects occurring with inflammation and edema.

Etiology[edit | edit source]

  • Mumps, HSV, VZV, EBV.
  • Substantial link to the vector: tick – tick encephalitis, Russian spring encephalitis; mosquito - western equine disease (USA), western Nile encephalitis (Africa).
  • Post-infectious encephalitis – follow childhood infections (measles, chickenpox, rubella), it is not a direct effect of the virus.

Clinical manifestations[edit | edit source]

MRI - HSV encephalitis
  • General manifestations ("influenza"): muscle pain, fever, headache, meningeal reactions, cerebrospinal fluid cell proliferation.
  • Symptoms of brain impairment - focal/diffuse, according to location.
  • With hemisphere involvement → epilepsy, involuntary movements, paresis, confusion, speech disorders.
  • Rhombencephalits = defects in cerebellar and brainstem structures.
  • Mesencephalic defect→ oculomotoric and autonomic disorders.
  • Cerebellar defect→ ataxia, dysarthria.
  • Brainstem defect → nystagmus, quadruparesis, cranial nerve palsy.
  • Spinal cord defect→ mixed motor, sensitive and autonomic dysfunction.

Prognosis[edit | edit source]

  • Usually lasts for several weeks;
  • the prognosis depends on the type of virus;
  • mortality HSV infection 20-30%, in mumps only 2%;[1]
  • also the neurological consequences vary in severity.

References[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

Literature[edit | edit source]

  1. SEIDL, Zdeněk a Jiří OBENBERGER. Neurologie pro studium i praxi. 1. vydání. Praha : Grada Publishing, 2004. ISBN 80-247-0623-7.