Portal:Questions for Final Examination in Orofacial Anatomy (1LF, D)

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List of questions – Orofacial Anatomy[edit | edit source]


a) External carotid artery; overview of branches

b) Cervical sympathetic system

c) Mechanics of temporomandibular joint, condyle path; joint vascular and nervous supply


a) Lymphatic nodes and vessels in the neck and head

b) Spatium parotideum. Topography of parotid gland

c) Temporomandibular joint (capsule, ligaments, disc and its changes through life)


a) Veins of the face and neck - overview; pterygoid plexus and its relations

b) Spatium pterygomandibulare

c) Vascular supply of the mandible


a) Ganglion oticum + ganglion submandibulare

b) Lymph outflow from the upper and lower jaws and tongue

c) Branchiogenic organs; characteristics, developmental anomalies (fistulas, cysts)


a) Head parasympathetics (nuclei, ganglions, target organs)

b) Regio temporalis

c) Importance of the growth hyaline cartilage in mandibular processus condylaris


a) Sinus durae matris, emissaries, vv. ophthalmicae

b) Inflammation spreading from the teeth of the upper jaw

c) Skin innervation of the head and neck


a) Hard palate (mucous membrane zones, anomalies, development); clefts

b) Spatium retropharyngeum, infection spreading, relation to the other spaces

c) Anomalies of the tooth roots


a) Teeth of the upper jaw (variations, anomalies, ramifications)

b) Compression of the arteries: carotis ext., facialis, lingualis, and temporalis superficialis

c) Anomaly of the vestibulum oris, diastema, tremata


a) Mimic muscles + platysma

b) Trigonum caroticum

c) Local anaesthesia of the upper jaw – anatomical background


a) Glandula parotis and its nerve supply

b) Inflammation spreading from teeth tops in the lower jaw

c) Nasopharynx (arrangement, topographic relations, mucous membrane relief)


a) Gum (epithelial zones, differences between young and old gingiva)

b) Ostium pharyngeum, oropharynx (parts, muscles, mucous membrane, surface)

c) X-ray pictures of the head, profile lines in face, biometric field


a) 1st branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1), ciliary ganglion + pupillar reflex

b) Regio gingivodentalis

c) Spatium "massetericomandibulare"; perimandibular abscess


a) Retromandibular fossa

b) Thickenings (buttresses) and weak parts in both the mandible and maxilla

c) Abrasion (masticatory, contact and interstitial)


a) N.VII. (types of paresis)

b) Inflammation spreading of the retromaxillar abscess, perimandibular abscess

c) Applied anatomy of the hard and soft palati : lines A,H; middle palatine suture, palate resiliency, length, width and index of the hard palatum


a) Articulatio temporomandibularis and its mechanics

b) Coniotomy. Superior tracheotomy

c) The development of the ectodermal tooth structure


a) Ostiomeatal unit; topographical relations

b) Satium praestyloideum + spatium paratonsillare

c) Maxillary artery and its branches


a) Nasal cavity (boundaries, sinus openings), vessels and nerves

b) Vessels and nerves of the lower jaw; changes in development and varieties

c) N. XII, cervical ansa, cervical plexus


a) Infrahyoid muscles, m.sternocleidomastoideus, neck fasciae. Mm.scaleni, prevertebral muscles

b) Inflammation spreading in face during veins to plexus pterigoideus and to the cavernous sinus

c) Anomaly of the number and size of the teeth, supranumeric teeth (phylogenetic explanation)


a) N.IX, n.X (only cervical part), n. XI. (involving nuclei)

b) Sublingual region

c) Tooth changes during life (Apposition of dentin and cementum, changes in the root length and location of the foramen apicis dentis). Transparency of root dentin


a) Maxilla + thickenings and weakness (pillars)

b) Inflammation spreading in sublingual region and in the middle tongue fissure

c) The development, growth and remodelling of the lower jaw


a) Lymph in tooth and in the parodontium

b) Trigonum submandibulare

c) X-ray examination of head


a) Cervical spaces and their mutual connections in relation to the spreading of pathological processes

b) Migration and transmigration of the teeth

c) Superior and inferior orbital fissure


a) Lower jaw teeth (variations, anomalies, ramifications)

b) Buccal region

c) Architectorics of the skull base, predetermined lines of fractures


a) Eruption time of both the permanent and deciduous teeth (molar and incisal types), raising of the bite

b) Fossa infratemporalis, division, content

c) Retroarticular plastic pillow (Zenker) and plexus (venosus) pterygoideus


a) Mandible (important structures from the stomatology viewpoint) + pillars, growth mandibular atrophy

b) Spatium retrostyloideum (parapharyngeum) and styloid septum

c) Topography of structures in the cavernous sinus


a) Soft palate

b) Inflammation spreading in the region of the lower third molar

c) Tongue muscles and spaces


a) Vestibulum oris, labial region

b) Topography of the temporomandibular jiont, joint luxation and reposition

c) The tooth development, eruption of the permanent teeth


a) Masticatory and suprahyoid muscles

b) Vessels and nerves in the upper jaw

c) Developmental mechanism of the soft palate and hard palate


a) 3rd branch of the trigeminal nerve (V3)

b) Skin structure in the face and neck. Direction of incisions and excisions

c) Occlusion types (frontal and lateral parts). Spee curve; Wilson curve


a) The suspensory system of the tooth, periodontium, alveolus, cement, changes through life

b) Topografical relations of paranasal sinuses

c) Fossa pterygopalatina, content, walls, canals


a) Face. Bischat pillow

b) Topographical anatomy and anaesthetics in the lower jaw region

c) X-ray pictures of salivary glands


a) Glandula sublingualis et submandibularis and their innervation

b) Face floors and their fractures

c) The development, growth and remodelling of the upper jaw (middle face floor)


a) 2nd branch of the trigeminal nerve (V2), ganglion pterygopalatinum

b) Regio mentalis a regio submentalis

c) Innervation of the oral cavity


a) Structure and mechanics of the masticatory muscles (physiological and anatomical sections, trismus, contraction)

b) Tongue (vascular and nervous supply, anomalies)

c) Palpation of the facial skeleton, examination of the trigeminal nerve