Algorithm for administration of nutritional support[edit | edit source]
- With good GIT function , enteral nutrition is given (sipping, nasogastric or nasojejunal tubes) ;
- if enteral nutrition is required for longer than 4–6 weeks, nutrition is introduced into the stoma (PEG) in bolus, intermittent or continuous form.
- In case of poor GIT function, parenteral nutrition (total, supplementary) is given;
- short-term (up to 10 days) – peripheral application;
- long-term (over 10 days) – by central catheter.
- Methods of administration:
- multiple bottles.
- Components of enteral nutrition:
- Contraindications of enteral nutrition:
Dietetics[edit | edit source]
Diet therapy means adjusting the diet in order to influence the disease process, the so-called sparing diet:
- mechanical examination – must not increase tone or peristalsis;
- chemical investigation – its composition must not irritate the mucous membrane and increase secretion;
- thermal protection - must not irritate the digestive tract thermally.
Classification of diets[edit | edit source]
- strict sparing diet – in an acute state, incomplete;
- basic sparing diet – full of energy and biological value, served long-term;
- sparing diet:
- special - tea, liquid nutritional, with strict fat restriction, diabetic;
- basic – liquid, mushy, sparing, with fat restriction, no residue;
- standardized – for pancreatitis, lactose intolerance, gluten, liver insufficiency.
Dietary fiber[edit | edit source]
- A polysaccharide that has almost no nutritional value.
- Intake should be 25-30 g per day (intake above 50 g may cause intestinal obstruction).
- Diet with fiber content is indicated for all people who do not need to spare the digestive tract, it has a preventive effect against constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis.
- Soft (soluble) fiber - fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes - hemicellulose, agar, pectins, mucus - absorbs excess water from the intestines, swells, binds toxic substances, increases the volume of stool and softens it.
- Coarse (insoluble) fiber - cereals, woody plants - cellulose, lignin - increases the volume of intestinal contents, adjusts peristalsis, acts against constipation.
Parenteral nutrition[edit | edit source]
For more information see Parental nutrition (Paediatrics).
Links[edit | edit source]
Related articles[edit | edit source]
- Parenteral Nutrition (Paediatrics)
- Biochemical evaluation of nutrition
- Assessment of nutritional status
- Nutrition recommendations
Sources[edit | edit source]
- PASTOR, Jan. Langenbeck's medical web page [online]. ©2006. [cit. 14.11.2010]. <http://langenbeck.webs.com/interna.htm>.