Stomic is a disabled citizen who has a hollow organ temporarily or permanently brought to the surface of the body.
A stomia (outlet) is an artificial outlet of a hollow organ to the surface of the body. Most often it is the large intestine, small intestine or urinary tract. This results in uncontrolled emptying of intestinal contents or urine in an unnatural way with the need for ostomy appliances.
This is a procedure that will change the client's life, so it is very important that the client is prepared for this procedure not only medically but also psychologically. Lack of knowledge and experience of the treating staff may result in a reduction in the quality of nursing care.
Classification of Stomia[edit | edit source]
Stomias can be divided according to their duration. Namely, temporary and permanent stomias. Permanent stomias are established when it is no longer possible to maintain the outflow of urine and stool in a natural way.
We can further divide stomas according to the purpose for which the stoma was created, namely, nutritive and derivative.
- Nutritional allowance is used to ensure the supply of food to the surviving organism.
- The digestive diverts the intestinal contents into a collection bag.
The most common types[edit | edit source]
Colostomy[edit | edit source]
A colostomy is usually placed in the left iliac fossa. If the colostomy arises from the sigmoid colon or the descending colon, normal stool with normal odor is formed. If the stoma forms on the side of the transverse and ascending colon, the stool is thin and has a very strong smell.
Ileostomy[edit | edit source]
Ileostomy refers to the artificial protrusion of the ileum onto the surface of the abdominal wall. It is usually established in the right iliac fossa. The stool from an ileostomy is very soft and watery, and the collection bag must be drained approximately 6 times a day.
Urostomy[edit | edit source]
Urostomy is performed when the bladder is removed (cystectomy).
Other types of Stomia[edit | edit source]
Artificial creation of an opening in the trachea to clear the airway. A tracheostomy cannula ensures patency.
Esophagostomy[edit | edit source]
Esophagostomy is indicated for esophageal obstruction.
Gastrostomy[edit | edit source]
The outlet of the stomach through the abdominal wall. It is indicated in case of esophageal obstruction. It belongs to nutritive stomias.
Links[edit | edit source]
Reference[edit | edit source]
- BOSÁKOVÁ, Alice. Péče o dětské pacienty se stomiemi. 2. vydání. Ostrava : Fakultní nemocnice s poliklinikou Ostrava, 2005. 36 s. ISBN 80-239-4731-1.
- ZACHOVÁ, Veronika, et al. Stomie. 1. vydání. Praha : Grada, 2010. 232 s. ISBN 978-80-247-3256-5