Nutrition Support Therapy
Nutrition Support Therapy Algorithm[edit | edit source]
- If intestines are working physiologically, enteral therapy is provided (sipping, nasogastric tube or nasojejunal tube);
- if the enteral therapy is indicated for longer period than 4–6 weeks, nutrition is provided via stoma (PEG) with bolus portions, intermittently or continually.
- In case of intestinal malfunction, parenteral nutrition is indicated (total, accessory);
- short-term (up to 10 days) – via peripheral access;
- long-term (over 10 days) – via central catheter.
- Routes of intake:
- multiple bottle.
- Nutrients in enteral therapy:
Dietetics[edit | edit source]
Dietotherapy stands for diet adjustment that leads to improving the initial patient's disease, so called saving-diet:
- mechanical saving – diet doesn't increase muscular tonus or peristalsis;
- chemical saving – diet doesn't irritate the mucosa and doesn't cause hypersecretion;
- temperature saving – diet doesn't irritate the mucosa with its heat, temperature.
Diet classification[edit | edit source]
- strict saving diet – in acute phase, not nutritionally complete;
- basic saving diet – biologically and nutritionally complete diet, ideal for long-term use;
- saving diet:
- special – tea, fluid nutrition, strictly fat limited, diabetic;
- basic – fluid nutrition, mushy, saving, fat limited, intestinal saving diet;
- standardized – pancreatitis, lactose intolerance, gluten intolerance, hepatal insufficiency.
Fiber in diet[edit | edit source]
- Polycarbohydrate with basically zero energy value.
- Ideal intake pro die should be 25–30 g (intake over 50 g brings a risk of intestinal obstruction).
- Fiber diet indicated in all patients who are not required to have a special intestinal saving diet, acts as a prevention against constipation, hemorrhoids, diverticulosis.
- Soft (water-soluble) fiber – fruit, vegetable, nuts, agar, pectins, slimes – absorbs excessive water from the intestines, swells, also absorbs toxic substances, increases the feces volume a softens it.
- Raw (non water-soluble) fiber – oats, wooden flowers – cellulose, lignin – increases the feces volume, adjusts peristalsis, constipation prevention.
Parenteral nutrition[edit | edit source]
Odkazy[edit | edit source]
Související články[edit | edit source]
- Parenterální výživa (pediatrie)
- Biochemické hodnocení výživy
- Hodnocení výživového stavu
- Výživová doporučení