Pain and hypoesthesia in the left shoulder (most often above the left shoulder blade) caused by irritation of the nervus phrenicus with blood in the diaphragm area. It is most often observed during splenic rupture, and less often by oviduct rupture during tubal pregnancy.
- HOCH, Jiří – LEFFLER, Jan. Speciální chirurgie : učebnice pro lékařské fakulty. 2. edition. Praha : Maxdorf, 2003. ISBN 80-85912-06-6.