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Subcutaneous hematoma

A hematoma (also haematom, haematoma ) is an extravascular effusion of blood. It irritates its surroundings and can provoke local inflammation, which causes swelling and other pain. The hematoma itself can have a different development. The severity of the consequences ranges from minimal to life-threatening for the patient. Location and size are important considerations as they vary in severity, method of diagnosis and treatment.

Etiology[edit | edit source]

The etiology of extravascular bleeding is trauma (including bone fractures and joint distortions) or the blood gets extravascular spontaneously (aneurysm), infectious disease, with deficiency of vitamins K or C, in anticoagulant treatment, congenital blood clotting disorders, etc..

Development of hematoma over time[edit | edit source]

The model is the surface type of hematoma. At the beginning, it has a bloody to blue coloration. Later, hemoglobin begins to break down (into choleglobin and verdoglobin). The result is a gradual darkening of the hematoma to a greenish color. Subsequently, biliverdin is formed, which is converted into bilirubin. In the end, the hematoma is absorbed, and disappears and, if there was no more serious damage to the surrounding tissues (e.g. skin), it heals per primam - i.e. without consequences. At the microscopic level, resorption and the so-called organization of granulation tissues take place (to a greater or lesser extent). However, the development can have its own specifics depending on the localization, the severity of the bleeding and the local anatomical and physiological conditions (e.g. the formation of a posthemorrhagic pseudocyst or a posthemorrhagic hygroma).

Division by size[edit | edit source]

  • petechiae – the smallest dot-like bleeding
  • ecchymosis – greater than 3 cm
  • suffusion – more extensive bleeding into the skin and/or subcutaneous tissue
  • purpura – this term means extensive but point-like bleeding

Division by localization[edit | edit source]

In newborns (birth defects)[edit | edit source]

  • kefalhematoma
  • hematomas of urgent parts
  • subcapsular hematoma of the liver

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]