Clostridium perfringens

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Clostridium perfringens
Colony of Clostridium Perfringens
Morphology Gram-positive rods , sporulating
Relation to oxygen aerotolerant
Cultivation blood agar , yolk agar
Virulence factors toxin α, thermolabile toxin (types A, B, D)
Transmission alimentary route
Occurrence soil, waste, contaminated food, intestinal tract of herbivores and carnivores
Incubation time 8-14 hours
Disease gas scab, cellulitis, colic, watery diarrhea , enteritis, enterotoxemia, soft tissue infections, early infection
Diagnostics clinical picture, microscopic finding of clostridia
Therapy crystalline penicillin with clindamycin, chloramphenicol, imipenem, metronidazole with clindamycin, surgery
MeSH ID D003016

Template:Infobox - bakterie Clostridium perfringens is a gram-positive , sporulating , aerotolerant bacterium .

Occurence[edit | edit source]

The vegetative cell has the shape of a rod , the thickness of which is over 1 μm and the length ranges from 2 to 10 μm. Spores are oval , thermoresistant , paracentral, occur commonly in our environment, such as soil, waste and easily contaminate food (especially meat). Sporulation takes place in the intestine , never in the affected tissue. Clostridium perfringens produces many biologically active substances, including toxins and enterotoxin. According to the type of toxin produced, it is divided into five groups (A-E). Clostridium perfringens is part of the normal intestinal microflora of humans and animals.

Clostridium Perfringes

Toxins[edit | edit source]

All types of Clostridium perfringens produce α toxin (phospholipase C, lecithinase), which has lethal and necrotizing effects. Other effects of toxins include:

Types A, B, D form a thermolabile enterotoxin in food , the spores of which are thermoresistant and can survive even boiling.

Pathogenesis[edit | edit source]

Clostridium perfringens is one of the most common human pathogens . Presence in the human body can cause histotoxic infections, gas gangrene, cellulitis. However, Clostridium perfringens is most often the cause of intestinal diseases (colic, watery diarrhea, enteritis, enterotoxemia). In colic and watery diarrhea, the incubation period is 8-14 hours after eating contaminated food, the symptoms (diarrhea, convulsions, abdominal pain) persist for about 24 hours. Nausea, fever and vomiting are present minimally.

Cultivation[edit | edit source]

Due to the fact that Clostridium perfringens belongs to aerotolerant bacteria, its cultivation is relatively easy. It hydrolyzes gelatin due to a number of saccharolytic and proteolytic enzymes . Type A forms a double zone of hemolysis, while the outer one (with incomplete hemolysis) is given by the action of phospholipase C (toxin α). A zone of opalescence is evident on the yolk agar , which is also caused by phospholipase C.

Diagnostics[edit | edit source]

To diagnose diseases caused by Clostridium perfringens , clinical signs, an epidemiological history and microbiological examination must be assessed. In the case of soft tissues, excision is taken from the wound, exudate or part of the damaged tissue.

Summary[edit | edit source]

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Links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. BENEŠ, Jiří, et al. Infectious medicine. 1st edition. Galén, 2009. 651 pp. 269-270. ISBN 978-80-7262-644-1 .

References[edit | edit source]

  • BEDNÁŘ, Marek. Medical microbiology: bacteriology, virology, parasitology. 1st edition. Prague: Marvil, 1996.  ISBN 80-2380-297-6 .
  • VOTAVA, Miroslav. Medical microbiology special. 1st edition. Brno: Neptun, 2003.  ISBN 80-902896-6-5 .

Source[edit | edit source]

G +
Micrococcus Micrococcus luteus
Rhodococcus Rhodococcus equi
facultatively anaerobic
Enterococcus Enterococcus duransEnterococcus faecalisEnterococcus faecium
Streptococcus Streptococcus agalactiaeStreptococcus mutansStreptococcus pneumoniaeStreptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus suisOral streptococci
Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus epidermidisStaphylococcus intermediusStaphylococcus saprophyticus
Peptococcus Peptococcus niger
Peptostreptococcus Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusPeptostreptococcus prevotiiPeptostreptococcus vaginalis
aerobic + facultative anaerobic
Arcanobacter Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
Bacillus Bacillus anthracisBacillus cereus
Corynebacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriaeCorynebacterium jeikeiumCorynebacterium ulceransCorynebacterium urealyticum
Erysipelothrix Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Listeria Listeria monocytogenes
Nocardia Nocardia asteroidesNocardia brasiliensis
Rhodococcus Rhodococcus equi
Actinomyces Actinomyces israeli • Actinomyces naeslundi
Bifidobacterium Bifidobacterium dentium
Clostridium Clostridium botulinumClostridium difficileClostridium novyiClostridium tetaniClostridium perfringensClostridium septicumClostridium ulcerans
Lactobacillus Lactobacillus acidophilus
Propionibacterium Propionibacterium acnesPropionibacterium propionicus
Acinetobacter Acinetobacter calcoaceticus
Moraxella Moraxella catarrhalisMoraxella lacunata
Neisseria Neisseria gonorrhoeaeNeisseria meningitidis • Non-pathogenic species of Neisseria
Veillonella Veillonella alcalescensVeillonella parvula
Rickettsia Rickettsia prowazekiiRickettsia rickettsiiRickettsia typhi
Alcaligentes Alkaligentes feacalis
Bartonella Bartonella bacilliformisBartonella henselaeBartonella quintana
Bordetella Bordetella bronchisepticaBordetella parapertussisBordetella pertussis
Brucella Brucella abortusBrucella canisBrucella melitensisBrucella suis
Burkholderia Burkholderia cepaciaBurkholderia malleiBurkholderia pseudomallei
Francisella Francisella tularensis
Legionella Legionella pneumophila
Kingella Kingella denitrificansKingella kingaeKingella oralis
Pseudomonas Pseudomonas aeruginosaPseudomonas fluorescens
Stenotrophomonas Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
facultatively anaerobic
Actinobacillus Actinobacillus equliActinobacillus lignieresii
Aeromonas Aermonas caviaeAeromonas hydrophilaAeromonas sobria
Afipia Afipia felis
Citrobacter Citrobacter freundiCitrobacter koseri
Eikenella Eikenella corrodens
Enterobacter Enterobacter aerogenesEnterobacter cloacae
Escherichia Escherichia coli
Haemophilus Haemophilus ducreyiHaemophilus haemolyticusHaemophilus influenzaeHaemophilus parainfluenzae
Klebsiella Klebsiella granulomatisKlebsiella oxytocaKlebsiella pneumoniae
Pasteurella Pasteurella haemolyticaPasteurella multocidaPasteurella ureae
Plesiomonas Plesiomonas shigelloides
Proteus Proteus mirabilisProteus vulgaris
Salmonella Salmonella Enteritidis • Salmonella Typhi • Salmonella Paratyphi
Serratia Serratia marcescens
Shigella Shigella boydiiShigella dysenteriaeShigella flexneriShigella sonnei
Vibrio Vibrio choleraeVibrio parahemolyticus
Yersinia Yersinia enterocoliticaYersinia pestisYersinia pseudotuberculosis
Campylobacter Campylobacter coliCampylobacter fetusCampylobacter jejuni
Helicobacter Helicobacter pylori
Bacteroides Bacteroides fragilisBacteroides vulgatus
Fusobacterium Fusobacterium necrophorumFusobacterium nucleatumFusobacterium stabile
Leptotricha Leptotricha buccalis
Mobiluncus Mobiluncus curtisiiMobiluncus mulieris
Prevotella Prevotella melaninogenica
Porphyromonas Porphyromonas gingivalis
acid resistant
Mycobacterium Atypical mycobacteriaMycobacterium tuberculosisMycobacterium leprae
non-stainable G +/-
strictly aerobic
Leptospira Leptospira biflexaLeptospira interrogansLeptospira parva
Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferiBorrelia hermsiBorrelia recurrentisBorrelia vincenti
strictly anaerobic
Treponema Non-pathogenic treponemsTreponema carateumTreponema pallidumTreponema phagedenisTreponema pertenue
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Kategorie:Mikrobiologie Kategorie:Bakterie Kategorie:Články s videem