Tumors of the oral cavity

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Mesenchymal benign[edit | edit source]

Fibroma in the oral cavity
  1. Fibroma – can be pedunculated (so-called fibroepithelial polyp) or sessile, depending on the ratio of cells and intercellular mass (amount of collagen) it is hard or soft, it can be exulsed on the surface, it occurs anywhere in the oral cavity, mainly in the buccal mucosa, a variant is giant cell fibroma from star-shaped and giant multinucleated (up to the appearance of Langhans cells) fibroblasts, some cells may contain pigment granules, most often in the gums.
  2. Lipoma – a soft, yellowish tumor, microscopically made of adipose tissue with an admixture of connective tissue (up to fibrolipoma).
  3. Hemangioma – capillary, cavernous, pyogenic granuloma, to be distinguished from telangiectasias in Rendu-Osler disease and Sturge-Weber syndrome.
  4. Lymphangioma – rare, mainly in the tongue and lip (can cause macroglossia and macrocheilia).
  5. Myoblastic myoma (granular cell tumor, Abrikosov's tumor) - most often in the tongue, the mucosa above it shows pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (in contrast to myoblastic myoma in newborns - the so-called epulis congenita, when there are no changes in the mucosa).
  6. Bone tumors – most often osteoclasts and osteomas in the jaws.

Mesenchymal malignant[edit | edit source]

  1. Fibrosarcoma - from soft parts and from the periosteum, periodontium and marrow cavities of bones.
  2. Bone marrow tumors – Ewing's sarcoma and myeloma.
  3. Kaposi's sarcoma - in patients with AIDS, mainly on the palate.
  4. Malignant lymphomas (tonsils, tongue, palate and palatal arches) + infiltrates in hemoblastosis.
    Histopathological image of a malignant melanoma, in this case a suspected superficially spreading malignant melanoma. Stained with hematoxylin–eosin

Neuroectoderms[edit | edit source]

Epithelia benign[edit | edit source]

Squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip

Malignant epithelia[edit | edit source]

Differently differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, grows exo- (on the lip) and endophytically (on the tongue).

  1. Lip cancer - mainly on the lower lip in older men, metastasizes to the submandibular and submental nodes
  2. Tongue cancer – the most malignant tumor of the oral cavity, arises on the edges, tip and root of the tongue, grows rapidly in depth, metastasizes to the deep neck nodes and hematogenously to the lungs
  3. Carcinoma of the floor of the oral cavity and buccal mucosa - it resembles the biological behavior of carcinoma of the tongue
  4. Gum cancer – in the area of ​​the third molars, progresses slowly
  5. Verrucous carcinoma – a slow-growing tumor with a low malignant potential, microscopically wide nodes of the tumor parenchyma (cells highly differentiated, low mitotic activity), the parenchyma is well demarcated from the stroma, it is often mistaken for pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia, it occurs mainly on the buccal mucosa and in the gums.

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