Scarlet fever

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Scarlet fever, scarlatina, is a infectious exanthema disease caused by beta-hemolytic group A streptococcus - Streptococcus pyogenes, which most often affects preschool and school children age. It is a streptococcal sore throat with a sore throat rash.

Burn occurs in a child susceptible to a given streptococcal serotype and its pyrogenic exotoxin. [1] The resulting exanthema is the result of an interaction between exotoxin. and antibody me at the capillary level.

Originator[edit | edit source]

Streptococcus pyogenes – group A beta-hemolytic streptococcusgroup A beta-hemolytic streptococcus;

  • according to the structure of the M protein, it has about 80 serotypes;
  • consists of 3 types of pyrogenic exotoxin (A, B, C) - formerly referred to as burn, ie erythrogenic toxin (functionally superantigen).

Epidemiology[edit | edit source]

  • Source: patient or exotoxin-producing streptococcal carrier;
  • transmission: droplets;
  • entrance road: nosohltan, but also broken skin ("morning sleep");
  • incidence in the Czech Republic (2000–2009): 3000–4500/year, ie. 28-43 patients per 100 000 population and year.;[2]
  • most often aged 3-10 years;
  • incubation period: 2-5 days.

Clinical picture[edit | edit source]

Raspberry tongue
  • Streptococcal angina with a spinal rash;
  • fever, vomiting, abdominal pain;[3]
  • rash is mainly in the lower abdomen, groin, inner thighs, armpits and elbows;
  • the skin is rough to the touch ("goosebumps" symptom);
  • in the face is diffuse erythema with circumoral fading ("Filat's symptom");
  • raspberry tongue, on the palate petechiae, edematous uvula;[3]
  • small papules in the area of the nail beds and on the arches ("Šrámek's flag");[4]
  • mild lymphadenopathy of the anterior cervical nodes;[3]
  • currently the course is light:
    • angina is bluetongue, low fever;
    • rash few, lasts a short time;
    • Complications are rare.

Diagnostics[edit | edit source]

  • Cultivation almond swab;
  • blood count: leukocytosis, left shift, mild eosinophilia;
  • serological evidence of antistreptococcal antibody (ASLO) rise in convalescent serum (antistreptolysin and antideoxyribonuclease).

Differential diagnostics[edit | edit source]

Therapy[edit | edit source]

The drug of choice is penicillin for at least 10 days, for allergies macrolides, cephalosporins and erythromycin. However, erythromycin resistance is becoming more common.<ref name="Goering2">

  • isolation of the patient (in the infection department or at home).

Complication[edit | edit source]

Prevention[edit | edit source]

  • if present, tonsils are swabbed at contacts → in case of a positive finding of streptococcus A treatment penicillin
  • subject to report

Links[edit | edit source]

related articles[edit | edit source]

External links[edit | edit source]

Reference[edit | edit source]

  • STATE HEALTH INSTITUTE ,, et al. Selected infectious diseases in the Czech Republic in the years 2000-2009 [online]. © 2010. [feeling. 2010-08-15]. < >.
  • TASKER, Robert C., Robert J. MCCLURE and Carlo L. ACERINI. Oxford Handbook by Pediatrics. 1st edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008. pp. 685.  ISBN 978-0-19-856573-4 .
  • ROTTENBERG, Jan. Differential diagnosis, therapy and complications of acute tonsillitis [online] . In Spring and summer in the surgery and pharmacy . 1st edition. Olomouc: Solen, 2010. 138 pp. 48-57. Also available from <>. ISBN 978-80-87327-32-6
  • GOERING, Richard V and Hazel M DOCKRELL. Mims' medical microbiology. 5th edition. Prague: Triton, 2016. 568 pp. 351.  ISBN 978-80-7387-928-0 .