Receptor-mediated endocytosis

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Receptor-mediated endocytosis[edit | edit source]

Previous chapters have focused on targeting intracellular proteins. However, the principle of regulation also applies to the uptake of proteins from the extracellular space by endocytosis, which is mediated by the interaction of the protein with a membrane receptor on the cell surface.

Receptor[edit | edit source]

The mentioned receptor is a glycoprotein, located in special places of the membrane, so-called coated pits. On the cytosolic side of these sites is a clathrin coat. Due to its three-armed structure, clathrin is able to form a reticulate mantle around the wells of the membrane or around various cytoplasmic vesicles, vacuoles. Upon delivery of ATP, the clathrin network can be enzymatically disrupted and clathrin can be used for further interactions.

After binding of the absorbed protein to the receptor, the well is deepened, and the clathrin eventually forms a closed network, releasing a coated vesicle from the membrane into the cytoplasm. It then quickly loses its clathrin mantle and turns into an endosome or receptosome. It usually enlarges by merging with other endosomes. The function of these organelles is to decide where to transport the absorbed protein. An important mechanism is the acidification of the endosome content. This is done by the action of the ATP-dependent H+/K+ pump in the endosome membrane.

Absorbed transferrin in a more acidic environment releases Fe and transfers it to the cytosol for ferritin. The endosome then merges with the cytoplasmic membrane. The apotransferrin receptor complex appears on the cell surface, in a higher pH environment in which apotransferrin is released for re-use.

Proteins after absorption[edit | edit source]

Other proteins taken up by receptor-directed endocytosis face a different fate in endosomes. Cholesterol-transporting LDL-apoprotein is transferred to the lysosome upon binding to the membrane receptor and after endocytosis. Here, it is degraded by lysosomal proteases while the receptor is reused on the cell surface. Immunocomplexes, insulin, or some growth factors are degraded in lysosomes with their receptors. This is an example of modulating the effect of protein hormones, as this reduces their blood levels and the number of their receptors in the target cells.

In human[edit | edit source]

Receptor-mediated endocytosis transports IgG from breast milk through the intestinal enterocytes of the newborn. On the other side of the cell adjacent to the capillary, endosome carrying the IgG-receptor complex fuses with the cytoplasmic membrane and the antibody is released into the bloodstream of the child with a fragment of the receptor called the secretory component.

In viruses[edit | edit source]

The described receptor-mediated endocytosis is also involved in the entry of some viruses into the host cell. After endosome + lysosome fusion, the acidic environment results in the fusion of the virion envelope with the lysosomal membrane, thereby releasing the nucleocapsid with the viral nucleic acid into the cytosol.

In the final stage of viral reproduction, newly synthesized viral nucleocapsids are released from the cell by erupting from it, encasing it in a plasma membrane.

In bacteria[edit | edit source]

Bacterial toxins (diphtheric and cholera toxin) also enter the cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis.

References[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

  • ŠTÍPEK, Stanislav. Stručná biochemie : Uchování a exprese genetické informace. 1. edition. Medprint, 1998. ISBN 80-902036-2-0.

References[edit | edit source]

  • ŠTÍPEK, Stanislav. Stručná biochemie : Uchování a exprese genetické informace. 1. edition. Medprint, 1998. ISBN 80-902036-2-0.