Portal:Questions for final examination in biochemistry

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  1. Physical and chemical properties of water, its importance in human organism
  2. Solubility of compounds, analytical and colloidal dispersions, diffusion, osmosis, dialysis, oncotic pressure, biochemical examples
  3. Energetics of chemical reactions, enthalpy, entropy, Gibb?s energy, metabolic applications
  4. Kinetics of reversible and consecutive reactions, chemical equilibrium, equilibrium law
  5. Kinetics of chemical reactions, application to enzymology
  6. Catalysts and biocatalysts, importance for biochemistry
  7. Electrolytic dissociation, dissociation constant, strong and weak electrolytes, biochemical examples
  8. Brönsted?s theory of acids and bases, equilibrium in protolytic reaction biochemical examples
  9. Ionic product of water, pH and its importance for medicine
  10. Ampholytes, isoelectric point, biochemical examples
  11. Buffer solution, pH calculation, importance in human organism
  12. Oxidation and reduction, biochemical examples
  13. Redox potential, dependency on the concentration of the reactants and pH, biochemical examples
  14. Solubility product, biochemical examples
  15. Complex formation, importance for biochemistry and medicine
  16. Chemical properties of basic biogenic elements. Reactive forms of oxygen
  17. Biologically and toxicologically important elements of the main groups of the periodic table
  18. Biologically and toxicologically important nontransition elements. Nitrogen inorganic compounds of biological importance
  19. Trace elements ? biological and metabolic importance
  20. Structure of organic compounds, isomerism, examples in metabolic pathways
  21. Relationship between structures and properties of organic compounds, biochemical examples
  22. Medically and toxicologically important halogeno and nitroderivatives of hydrocarbons
  23. Medically important sulphur-containing derivatives of hydrocarbons
  24. Amines, importance in biochemistry
  25. Alcohols, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, biochemical examples
  26. Carboxylic acids, biochemical examples
  27. Esters of carboxylic and inorganic acids, biochemical examples
  28. Functional and substituted derivatives of carboxylic acids, biochemical examples
  29. Importance of nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur-containing heterocycles
  30. Proteogenic amino acids, division, structures, reactions, peptides, biological importance
  31. Proteins - structure, properties and functions. Conformation of proteins, importance for their biological function
  32. Saccharides, classification, structure, stereochemistry, biological importance
  33. Reactions of saccharides, disaccharides, N- and O- glycosidic bond, examples
  34. Homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides
  35. Proteoglycanes, glycoproteins, structure, properties
  36. Lipids, definition, classification, structure, properties, functions in human organism
  37. Phosphatidic acid and its derivatives
  38. Phospho- anf glycosphingolipids, structure properties, function in human organism
  39. Sterols, classification, structure, properties, functions in human organism
  40. Bile acids and steroid hormones ? structure, properties and function in human organism

II. METABOLISM[✎ edit | edit source]

  1. Structure of enzymes (coenzymes, oligomeric structure). Multiple forms of enzymes and isoenzymes. Medical application of enzymology
  2. Enzymatic activity, influence of physical and chemical conditions, regulation (expression, allosteric effects, covalent modification)
  3. Respiratory chain Oxidative phosphorylation
  4. Energy-rich compounds, substrate level phosphorylation, drive of endergonic reactions
  5. Citric acid cycle, amphibolic character of the citric acid cycle, regulation
  6. Cell membrane - structure, assembly, function, transport across membranes
  7. Common mechanisms of amino acids conversion, deamination, transamination, nitrogen balance
  8. Formation and detoxification of ammonia, urea cycle and its regulation, hyperammonaemia
  9. Catabolism of the carbon skeleton of amino acids, integration of amino acids into metabolic pathways
  10. Amino acids of pyruvate, oxalacetate and 2-oxoglutarat family, their catabolism
  11. Amino acids of succinyl CoA family, their catabolism
  12. Metabolism of branched amino acids
  13. Metabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine, defects
  14. Metabolism of tryptophane, major and minor pathways, defects in its resorption
  15. Metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids
  16. Conversion of amino acids into special products (formation, conversion and importance of creatine, formation, conversion and importance of S-adenosylmethionine)
  17. Biosynthesis, biodegradation and function of the most important biogenic amines and catecholamines
  18. Glycolysis, regulation
  19. Gluconeogenesis, regulation
  20. Degradation and synthesis of glycogen, regulation, defects
  21. Pentose phosphate pathways, regulation
  22. Metabolism of galactose and fructose, defects
  23. Metabolism of glucuronic acid and its metabolic importance
  24. Biosynthesis "de novo" of saturated fatty acids, regulation. Origin of acetyl CoA for biosynthesis of palmitate
  25. Palmitate as substrate for synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids
  26. Formation of ketone bodies from acetyl-CoA, metabolic causes and importance
  27. Carnitine system, oxidation of fatty acids, energy balance
  28. Biosynthesis, conversion and transport of triacylglycerols
  29. Structure, metabolism and function of phosphatide acid and phospholipids
  30. Biosynthesis of sphingosine, sphingolipids, structure, properties and function in organism
  31. Synthesis and degradation of eicosanoids, cyclooxygenase and lipooxygenase pathways
  32. Biosynthesis of cholesterol and its regulation, role of HMG-CoA reductase. Transport of the endogenic and exogenic cholesterol
  33. Conversion and excretion of cholesterol, bile acids
  34. Biosynthesis, degradation and function of steroid hormones
  35. Transport of lipids, role of lipoproteins, structure of lipoprotein particles. Formation, conversion, and role of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL lipoproteins
  36. Biosynthesis of hem, defects of synthesis, porphyrias
  37. Degradation of tetrapyrroles, hyperbilirubinaemia, jaundices
  38. Pyrimidine nucleotides, metabolism, regulation, inhibitors, defects
  39. Purine nucleotides, metabolism, regulation, inhibitors, defects
  40. Biosynthesis of deoxyribonucleotides and its regulation, inhibitors


  1. Regulation and coordination of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism
  2. Glycaemia and its regulation. Glucose tolerance test. Glycosylated haemoglobin
  3. Metabolic interrelation between glucose and other nutrients; Cori cycle
  4. Metabolism of fat tissue
  5. Regulation of haeme biosynthesis; differences between the hepatocyte and erythroid cell; iron metabolism
  6. Regulation of metabolism at the neurohumoral level, integration systems of the organism
  7. Hormonal regulation of water and mineral metabolism
  8. Hormonal regulation of bone metabolism
  9. The integration of metabolism and the provision of tissue fuel
  10. Biochemical processes in the stomach; gastric juice; gastric mucins, acid-resistant lipases
  11. Intestinal digestion; role of the pancreas in the digestion
  12. Biochemical functions of hepatocytes and liver; assessment of liver function and damage
  13. Biotransformation of endogenous and exogenous compounds; phases of the biotransformation. Toxic and carcinogenic compounds in the environment
  14. Buffer systems of the organism
  15. Bicarbonate system, its significance in maintaining the acido-base balance
  16. The role of haemoglobin, proteins and phosphates in maintaining the acido-base balance
  17. Erythrocyte metabolism
  18. Haemocoagulation
  19. Urine, properties and its physiological and pathological constituents
  20. Collagen family ? structure, properties, metabolism, function
  21. Adhesive glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix
  22. Biochemistry of the cartilage and bone
  23. Biochemistry of the skin. Biochemical basis of touch
  24. Contractile apparatus, the control of smooth and skeletal muscle contraction
  25. Biochemistry of vision - Wald cycle, transducin cycle, the role of cGMP-gated ion channels
  26. Biochemistry of hearing
  27. Biochemistry of olfaction
  28. Biochemistry of taste
  29. Biochemical events in the synapsis; neurotransmitters
  30. Receptors ? structure and function
  31. Steroid hormones and their functions in regulatory processes
  32. Peptide hormones and their functions in regulatory processes
  33. Thyroid hormones and their functions in regulatory processes
  34. Prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipoxins. Hydroxyepoxytriene acids
  35. Molecular basis of the humoral immune response
  36. Molecular basis of the cellular immune response
  37. Lipid-soluble vitamins
  38. Water-soluble vitamins
  39. Structure, constituents and properties of cell membranes
  40. Membrane transport


  1. Signal transduction, membrane receptors and their ligands, G-proteins
  2. Second messenger pathways and signal transduction
  3. Signalling using Ras proteins, cascade of kinases, JAK-STAT signaling pathway
  4. Activation of phospholipases in signal transduction
  5. NO signalling. Overview of signalling pathways and significance
  6. Intracellular receptors and their ligands, HSP, interactions of intracellular receptors with DNA
  7. Intercellular communication
  8. Structure and function of nucleic acids
  9. Organization of prokaryotic, eukaryotic and mitochondrial genome
  10. Replication of eukaryotic DNA, DNA replication apparatus and its regulation
  11. DNA repair
  12. Transcription of eukaryotic DNA, transcription apparatus and its regulation, cis- and trans-regulation elements
  13. mRNA, structure, synthesis, posttranscriptional modifications, RNA interference
  14. Regulation of gene expression at the level of transcription
  15. Genetic code and its properties
  16. Eukaryotic, prokaryotic and mitochondrial translation
  17. Regulation of gene expression at the level of translation, inhibitors of translation, antibiotics as translation inhibitors
  18. Posttranslational modification of proteins
  19. Protein transport and targeting, modification and sorting of proteins in Golgi apparatus
  20. Biosynthesis of glycoproteins, their structure and significance
  21. Restriction enzymes and their usage, DNA modification and construction of recombinant DNA molecules
  22. DNA cloning, transfer of foreign genetic information into bacterial and mammalian cells
  23. DNA diagnostics, techniques, RFLP
  24. Gene therapy, transfer of the genetic material in gene therapy
  25. Blotting, hybridization techniques and their application in clinical diagnostics, hybridization probes
  26. Methods of cell fractionation, electrophoretic analysis of nucleic acids and proteins
  27. Polymerase chain reaction, PCR applications in clinical diagnostics, RT-PCR and application of this technique, DNA sequencing
  28. Hereditary diseases and their diagnostics
  29. Hereditary predisposition to cancer and its diagnostics
  30. Types of human gene mutations, hereditary and somatic mutations
  31. Polymorphisms, significance and detection, minisatellite and microsatellite markers and their analysis
  32. Retroviruses and pararetroviruses, structure and replication
  33. Protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
  34. Cell cycle, cyclins and cdks complexes
  35. Regulation of cell cycle, the role of tumor suppressor genes
  36. Ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of proteins
  37. Apoptosis,initiation, control and effector phase, death receptors and their ligands, caspases
  38. Apoptosis, intrinsic and extrinsic activation pathways, the role of mitochondria in apoptosis
  39. Epigenetics, DNA methalation, histone modifications, epigenetic effects in humans
  40. DNA recombination, the roles of homologous and nonhomologous recombination