Nutritional recommendations

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Template:Checked Nutrition recommendations are based on the results of studies - these are general principles that reduce the risk of civilization diseases. Nutritional recommendations for the adult population of the Czech Republic are generally referred to as ``healthy 13.

Hello 13[edit | edit source]

US Department of Agriculture Food Pyramid
Food Pyramid Harvard School of Public Health
What does 100g of vegetables look like

1. Maintain a reasonable stable body weight characterized by a BMI (18.5-25.0) kg/m2 and a waist circumference below 94 cm for males and below 80 cm in women.[1]

2.' Move at least 30 minutes a day, e.g. by brisk walking or exercise.[1]

3.' Eat a varied diet, divided into 4-5 daily meals, do not skip breakfast.[1]

There are two reasons for this point:
  • the wider the spectrum (larger number) of foods consumed, the lower the probability of excess or insufficient intake of individual nutrients;
  • refers to toxicology - some foods have a higher tendency to accumulate harmful substances "alive" with which they have come into contact. E.g. marine fish and animals accumulate heavy metals if they live in polluted waters (if I eat a reasonable amount of fish it doesn't do anything for me, but if I focus on just that in my diet it's worse) or if I eat too much soy, I eat too much phytoestrogen .
The variety of the diet is evaluated according to the pyramid, do not eat late in the evening, max. 3 hours before bedtime.

4. Consume a sufficient amount of vegetables (raw and cooked) and fruit, at least 500 g per day, divided into several portions; occasionally consume smaller amounts of nuts[1]

  • Vegetables 2x more than fruit, because vegetables have on average 2x more minerals, trace elements and vitamins, but 2x less energy than fruit.
  • Mainly protective effect - vegetables and fruits also contain substances not classified as nutrients - e.g. salicylates, carotenoids, lycopene have a protective effect...

5. Eat cereal products (dark bread and pastries, preferably whole grain pasta, rice) or potatoes no more than 4 times a day, don't forget legumes.[1]

Legumes at least once a week - they contain proteins practically without fat, in the sprouted state they also contain vit. C.

6. Eat fish and fish products at least twice a week.[1]

It is a source of unsaturated fatty acids and vit. AND. Fatty marine fish contain significant amounts of vit. D, marine fish are also a source of iodine and fluorine. Small fish and bones are sources of calciumu.

7. Include milk and milk products daily, especially sour; preferably choose semi-fat and low-fat.

Even people with lactase deficiency tolerate fermented milk products. Preference is given to products containing probiotics - some of the strains of lactic acid bacteria that positively affect human health by improving the microbial intestinal balance.

8. Monitor fat intake, limit the amount of fat both in hidden form[1] (fatty meat, fatty meat and dairy products, delicate and long-lasting pastries with a higher fat content, chips, chocolate products), such as spreads on bread and pastries and in food preparation. If possible, replace animal fats with vegetable oils and fats.

Fats should make up no more than 30% of energy intake, i.e. max. 70 g/day.

9. Reduce your intake of sugar, especially in the form of sweetened drinks (10 g / 100 ml), sweets, compotes and ice cream.[1]

The only disease proven to be linked to carbohydrates as a cause is tooth decay; adding sugar to food increases its energy density (calories) without providing other necessary nutrients at the same time.

10. Limit the intake of table salt and foods with a higher salt content (chips, salted bars and nuts, salty sausages and cheese), do not salt ready meals.[1]

The usual daily consumption of salt is about 12 g, but only 5 g is recommended (3-5 g for hypertensive patients). 3 g of salt are already in food without adding salt; we should choose foods that are not oversalted and not salt them further.

11.' Prevent infections and food poisoning by proper food handling when purchasing, storing and preparing food; during heat treatment, give preference to gentle methods, limit frying and grilling.[1]

12. Don't forget your drinking regime, drink at least 1.5 liters of fluids daily (water, mineral waters, weak tea, fruit teas and juices, preferably unsweetened).[1]

13. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do not exceed the daily alcohol intake of 20 g (200 ml of wine, 0.5 l of beer, 50 ml of spirits).[1]

Recommended daily allowances for nutrient intake vary by age, gender and physical activity. They are determined to cover the need for basic nutrients, selected vitamins, minerals and trace elements for almost all healthy people in a given population group. An individual's actual need may vary. In the past, recommended doses were mainly aimed at preventing manifestations of nutrient deficiency (e.g. rickets, scurvy), nowadays they are also aimed at reducing the risk of developing chronic non-infectious diseases (e.g. cardiovascular, some types of tumors).

5-10 mg of vitamin C per day is enough to prevent scurvy. However, Vitamin C also has antioxidant effects, so much higher doses are recommended, especially in some countries: WHO recommends a daily dose of 45 mg/day, German-speaking countries (DACH 2000) they recommend 100 mg.

In the Czech Republic until now (May 2011) the recommended doses from 1989 are formally valid, which are outdated, therefore the recommended doses of German-speaking countries, the so-called DACH 2000 (Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Ernahrung, Osterreichische Gesellschaft fur Ernahrung Sweizerische Gesellschaft fur Ernahrungforschung, Sweizerische Vereinigung) are generally accepted fur Ernahrung. Referenzwerte fur die Nahrstoffzufuhr. 1. Auflage Frankfurt am Main: Umschau/Braus, 2000).

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. a b c d e f g h i j k l Society for Nutrition. Zdrava 13 [online]. [cit. 2011-05-04]. <http://www.vyzivaspol. cz/healthy-trinactka-brief-nutritional-recommendations-for-the-general-public/>.

References[edit | edit source]

  • BENCKO, Vladimir, et al. Hygiene – teaching texts for seminars and practical exercises. 2. edition. Prague. 2002. ISBN 80-7184-551-5.