Henoch–Schönlein purpura

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Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a common vasculitis of childhood with predominant involvement of small blood vessels. It often follows an upper respiratory tract infection or can be caused by medication. Vasculitis mainly affects the blood vessels of the skin, digestive system, kidneys and joints. Immunofluorescence deposits of IgA immunocomplexes are typical.[1]

Characteristics[edit | edit source]

The most common occurrence is in children from 3 to 15 years of age. Incidence is 12/100, boys are more likely to be affected than girls. The cause is unknown (undeniable role of intercurrent infection).

Leukocytoclastic vasculitis (biopsy of skin lesions) is characteristic. IgA deposits occur in capillaries and venules, and in the kidneys, they are mesangioproliferative deposits glomerulonephritis.[2]

Clinical picture[edit | edit source]

Skin rash with more severe HSP

The patient suffers from a skin rash, either as a confluent skin eruption of the nature of purpura above the extensors of the lower limbs, which may also occur on the upper limbs or as hemorrhagic bulla). The rash does not itch and disappears within 2 weeks.

Up to 80% of patients also experience joint pain, transient arthritis, prevents rash, but can affect any joint - especially the knees and ankles, with arthritis onset swelling with pain and reduced mobility.

In 50% of patients, abdominal pain occurs, especially in the navel area, and positive occult bleeding may occur.

In 1/3 patients[2][3][1] there is kidney disease of various extents - glomerulonephritis, which is microscopic hematuria and proteinuria, which rarely progresses to nephrotic syndrome)

Laboratory finding[edit | edit source]

IgA imaging in the glomerulus in a patient with HSP glomerulonephritis

Elevation of inflammatory parameters occurs in the laboratory finding: sedimentation, CRP, leukocytosis [3]. Platelet counts, in contrast to platelets, are normal or elevated [3]. Hematuria, proteinuria and faecal blood may be present [3]. Elevation occurs PAF [2]. Anemia [2] appears. Elevations in IgA persist, complement levels tend to be normal. In hemocoagulation there is usually a pathological test of capillary fragility, other parameters are normal. Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis with IgA deposits and complement in the mesangium occurs during biopsy kidneys and IgA deposits during skin biopsy[1].

Diagnostic criteria[edit | edit source]

Direct IgA immunofluorescence in the glomerulus

In order to diagnose Henoch-Schönlein purpura, the patient must have 2 of the following 4 symptoms:

  • purpura that does not disappear on palpation (in the absence of thrombocytopenia);
  • abdominal pain (diffuse pain or intestinal ischemia);
  • diagnostic biopsy (granulocytes in the arterioles and venules);
  • age up to 20 years [3].

These criteria have 87.1% sensitivity and 87.7% specificity.

Differential diagnostics[edit | edit source]

Therapy[edit | edit source]

The most important is sleep mode. So-called symptomatic therapy is proposed, which involves hydration and adjustment of electrolyte balance. In acute arthritis, non-steroidal anti-rheumatic drugs are prescribed. Corticosteroids are given to the patient for joint symptoms and abdominal pain. Methylprednisone is originally given, but not as prevention for glomerulonephritis, as meta-analyses have not shown a reduction in the risk of developing nephrotic or nephritic SY with preventive use. In the case of an RPGN image, a combination of steroids and azathioprine is appropriate.

Forecast[edit | edit source]

The long-term prognosis is favourable, but it depends on the extent of renal impairment. 1–4% of patients may develop chronic nephritis. [1]. The disease usually lasts 3-4 weeks [2].

References[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. a b c d HRODEK, Otto – VAVŘINEC, Jan, et al. Pediatrie. 1. edition. Praha : Galén, 2002. pp. 153-154. ISBN 80-7262-178-5.
  2. a b c d e DUNGL, P., et al. Ortopedie. 1. edition. Praha : Grada Publishing, 2005. ISBN 80-247-0550-8.
  3. a b c d e f KLIEGMAN, Robert M. – MARCDANTE, Karen J. – JENSON, Hal B.. Nelson Essentials of Pediatrics. 5. edition. China : Elsevier Saunders, 2006. vol. 1. pp. 428-429. ISBN 978-0-8089-2325-1.