ENT aspects of sleep apnea syndrome

From WikiLectures

  • Snoring = rhonchopathy;
  • OSAS = obstructive sleep apnea syndrome;
  • SAS = sleep apnea syndrome.

Etiology and pathogenesis[edit | edit source]

  • Pharyngeal obstruction – partial (ronchopathy) x complete (OSAS).
  • The muscle tone is not enough to overcome the negative air pressure during inspiration and thus to maintain the lumen – the pharynx collapses; muscle tone decreases with age.

Other factors:

  • the size of the velopharyngeal space (soft palate, uvula, tonsils, adenoid vegetation , tumors);
  • the size of the retroglossal space (retroposition of the tongue, hypertrophy of the lingual tonsil);
  • obstruction of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx.

The most common site of obstruction – soft palate, retroglossal space. Turbulent airflow through a partially collapsed larynx → vibration → snoring. Complete collapse of pharyngeal musculature → apnoeic pause (tens of seconds to minutes !!) → awakening reaction → restoration of muscle tone → restoration of breathing (often explosive snoring).

Consequences[edit | edit source]

Ronchopathy – mainly bothers the surroundings; OSAS – effect especially on KVS:

  • CVDhypertension , higher incidence of IM , CAD , arrhythmias, stroke.
  • Disruption of sleep architecture - impact on quality of life - deterioration of cognitive functions, depression, sexual dysfunction, daytime sleepiness .

Diagnostics[edit | edit source]

  1. Benign rhonchopathy – without apnoeic pauses, without hypoventilation and hypoxia , the quality of sleep is not impaired.
  2. Syndrome of increased HCD resistance - increased respiratory effort → increased intrathoracic pressure → awakening, without hypoventilation and hypoxia.
  3. OSASapnoeic pauses (duration min. 10 s; more than 10 per hour); it is necessary to differentiate the central SAS (without HCD obstruction) .

Targeted anamnesis (if possible also from the partner); subjectively – insufficiently refreshing sleep, increased daytime sleepiness; habitus - often obesity; ENT examination – nasal patency, spaciousness of the velopharyngeal area and the area behind the root of the tongue, size of the mandible, position and size of the root of the tongue; possibly imaging methods – lateral X-ray cephalometry, CT, MR; examination in the sleep laboratory - all-night polysomnographic monitoring (distinguishing simple rhonchopathy from SAS and obstructive apnoeic pauses from central ones).

Patient connected to CPAP
Patient connected to CPAP

Therapy[edit | edit source]

  1. Conservative
    • Lifestyle – sleep hygiene (regularity, adequate length), do not consume alcohol in the evening, avoid hypnotics, do not sleep on your back, do not smoke, weight reduction for obese people.
    • CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) – nasal positive pressure ventilation; the nasal mask - excess pressure in the HCD - prevents the collapse of the pharyngeal muscles.
  2. Surgery
    • Nose and nasopharynx – septoplasty, adenotomy.
    • Velopharyngeal space
      • UPPP (uvulopalatopharynphoplasty) – resection of part of the soft palate, part of the palatal arches and the entire uvula, bilateral tonsillectomy.
      • LAUP (laser assisted uvuloplasty) – laser uvuloplasty, outpatient procedure.
    • Radiofrequency ablation – insertion of needles into tissue → delivery of radiofrequency energy → thermal damage → coagulation necrosis → a scar that is smaller in volume than the original tissue.
    • Tongue retroposition, maxillomandibular shift, tracheostomy .
  • Simple rhonchopathy – LAUP, radiofrequency ablation.
  • Light to medium SAS – UPPP.
  • Severe SAS – CPAP, UPPP (if CPAP is not possible).

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  • KLOZAR, Jan, et al. Speciální otorinolaryngologie. 1. edition. Praha : Galén, 2005. 224 pp. ISBN 80-7262-346-X.