Dietary therapy in infectious diseases

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  • a patient with an acute infection is in a hypercatabolic state: the energy expenditure sometimes rises to the values ​​seen in a very hard-working person
  • in a previously healthy individual, we do not have to alter the energy intake in acute inflammation
  • if the inflammation lasts over 10 days, we must supplement energy intake
  • first we always try to supplement energy intake via the oral route, then via i.v. infusions.

Diets (Regulae diaeteticae)[edit | edit source]

Dietary system in hospitals[edit | edit source]

Basic diets[edit | edit source]

  • D–0 Liquid

Characteristics: Drinks, soups, sauces, half-energy content

Indications: Surgeries of the gastrointestinal system

  • D–1 Soft

Characteristics: Purees, full-energy content

Indications: Surgeries and diseases of the gastrointestinal system

  • D–2 Saving

Characteristics: Easy to digest

Indications: Feverish diseases, mild gastrointestinal system diseases

  • D–3 Rational

Characteristics: Respects the principles of rational nutrition, energy content of 11 MJ, physiological nutrient ratio

Indications: Diseases that do not require a change in diet

  • D–4 Low fat

Characteristics: Fat limitation (65 grams)

Indications: Diseases of the gallbladder, pancreas, hepatitis, mild intestinal diseases

  • D–5 Low Residue

Characteristics: Mechanically and chemically soft to the intestine, reduction of cellulose (vegetables) and milk as a beverage

Indications: Mild diarrhea

  • D–6 Low protein

Characteristics: Protein and salt limitation (60 grams)

Indications: Kidney diseases

  • D–7 Low cholesterol

Characteristics: Contains mainly unsaturated fatty acids (vegetable oils) and cellulose (vegetables)

Indications: Hyperlipidemia, complications of atherosclerosis

  • D–8 Reduction

Characteristics: Energy limitation (6 MJ)

Indications: Obesity

  • D–9 Diabetic

Characteristics: Ensures a lower and spread out carbohydrate intake (200 grams)

Indications: Diabetes mellitus

  • D–10 Low sodium

Characteristics: Reduces sodium intake by eliminating table salt

Indications: Edema (decompensation of cardiac insufficiency, pregnancy)

  • D–11 Nourishing

Characteristics: Energy rich (14 MJ) and biologically valuable

Indications: Convalescence, tuberculosis, tumors, AIDS

  • D–12 Toddler diet

Characteristics: Respects the principles of rational toddler diet: dairy products

Indications: Children aged from 1 and 1/2 years to 3 years

  • D–13 Older children's diet

Characteristics: Respects the principles of a rational diet for children: common, popular, easily digestible, non-spicy foods

Indications: Children aged from 4 to 15 years

Special and standardized diets[edit | edit source]

  • D–0/S Tea

Characteristics: Tea and crackers

Indications: Acute diarrhea

  • D–1/S Liquid nutrition

Characteristics: Liquid, energy-rich with a high bioavailibility

Indications: Disorders of chewing and swallowing due to diseases and injuries of the oral cavity and esophagus

  • D–4/S With strict fat restriction

Characteristics: Significant fat reduction

Indications: Acute conditions of the gallbladder and pancreas after a tea diet and in onset of viral hepatitis

  • D–9/S Diabetic saving

Characteristics: Meets the requirements of diets D-2 and D-9

Indications: Diabetes with complications

  • D–S/KN Non-greasy soft

Characteristics: Similar to D–4/S

Indications: Acute diarrhea

  • D–S/P Pancreatic

Characteristics: Similar to D–4

Indications: improving diarrhea, improving pancreatitis

  • D–S/K Greasy soft

Characteristics: Similar to D–1

Indications: Mild gastrointestinal system disease

  • D–S/BLP Gluten-free

Characteristics: Does not contain wheat gluten (which contains gliadin)

Indications: Celiac disease, gluten enteropathy

  • D–S/BLK Lactose-free

Characteristics: Does not contain dairy products

Indications: Lactose intolerance

  • D–S/OK For examination of occult bleeding

Characteristics: Does not contain meat and vegetables (for 3 days)

Indications: Detection of occult bleeding, if it is positive without dietary restrictions

References[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

Literature[edit | edit source]

  • HAVLÍK, Jiří, et al. Infektologie. 2. edition. Praha : Avicenum, 1990. 393 pp. ISBN 80-201-0062-8.
  • LOBOVSKÁ, Alena. Infekční nemoci. 1. edition. Praha : Karolinum, 2001. 263 pp. ISBN 80-246-0116-8.