Tract[edit | edit source]
The oesophagus descends from the mouth into the diaphragm; through the oesophageal hiatus at the T10 level. It has a midline position as it moves down the thorax. Nearing the diaphragm, it moves to be left and anterior to the thoracic Aorta.
Compressions[edit | edit source]
- Junction of the pharynx and the oesophagus
- Superior mediastinum - arch of Aorta
- Posterior mediastinum - left main bronchus
- Posterior mediastinum - compressed hiatus
Innervation[edit | edit source]
- Vagus nerve and sympathetic trunk
- Striated muscle by bronchial branch of vagus nerve
- Smooth muscle by parasympathetic fibres
Oesophageal Plexus[edit | edit source]
Anterior vagal trunk comes from the left vagus nerve; the posterior vagal trunk comes from the right vagus nerve.
Divisions[edit | edit source]
The oesophagus is 23-27cm long and 1-2cm in diameter. It is divided into three parts: cervical, thoracic and abdominal
- Cervical - anterior to vertebral column: C6 to T1
- Thoracic - superior and posterior mediastinum: T1 to oesophageal hiatus
- Abdominal - from diaphragm to cardiac orifice
Oesophageal Varices[edit | edit source]
Veins drain portal and systemic blood. In portal hypertension, there is no blood flow into portal vein. This causes reverse flow through oesophageal tributaries, dilating the sub-mucosal veins in the oesophagus. This may lead to cirrhosis or oesophageal cancer.
Syntopy[edit | edit source]
- Left - Aorta
- Anterior - heart and pericardium
- Posterior - vertebral column
- Lateral and medial - lungs
Links[edit | edit source]
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
SNELL, Richard S. Clinical Anatomy by Regions. 8th Edition edition. 2004. ISBN 978-0-7817-6404-9.