Clostridium

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Clostridium spp.
Clostridiaceace
Clostridium
Clostridium Perfringens
Morphology G + sticks
Relation to oxygen anaerobic
Occurrence soil, mud, ponds, rivers and the coast, dust, vegetation, many species are commensal in the intestines of vertebrates and humans
Disease neurointoxication, necrotizing toxin infections, intestinal disease processes
Therapy beta lactam ATB (penicillin G), cephalosporins (cefoxitin), deoxylinecomycin, clindamycin, vancomycin, tetracyclines, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, metronidazole


An important group of bacteria, whose common characteristics are sensitivity to oxygen and the ability to sporulate. Developmentally, it belongs to a very old group of bacteria with numerous links to archaebacteria.

  • Morphology: G + rods, variously long and wide, mostly straight.
  • Occurence: Widespread in nature, occur in soil, mud (ponds, rivers, sea coast), dust, vegetation. Many species saprophyte in the gut of vertebrates and humans.

Disease[edit | edit source]

Clostridia cause 3 types of disease:

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References[edit | edit source]

  • BEDNÁŘ, M, V FRAŇKOVÁ and J SCHINDLER, et al. Medical microbiology - bacteriology, virology, parasitology. 1st edition. Prague: Marvil, 1996. 558 pp.  ISBN 80-238-0297-6 .
Bacteria
G +
coke
aerobic
Micrococcus Micrococcus luteus
Rhodococcus Rhodococcus equi
facultatively anaerobic
Enterococcus Enterococcus duransEnterococcus faecalisEnterococcus faecium
Streptococcus Streptococcus agalactiaeStreptococcus mutansStreptococcus pneumoniaeStreptococcus pyogenesStreptococcus suisOral streptococci
Staphylococcus Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus epidermidisStaphylococcus intermediusStaphylococcus saprophyticus
anaerobic
Peptococcus Peptococcus niger
Peptostreptococcus Peptostreptococcus anaerobiusPeptostreptococcus prevotiiPeptostreptococcus vaginalis
sticks
aerobic + facultative anaerobic
Arcanobacter Arcanobacterium haemolyticum
Bacillus Bacillus anthracisBacillus cereus
Corynebacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriaeCorynebacterium jeikeiumCorynebacterium ulceransCorynebacterium urealyticum
Erysipelothrix Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
Listeria Listeria monocytogenes
Nocardia Nocardia asteroidesNocardia brasiliensis
Rhodococcus Rhodococcus equi
anaerobic
Actinomyces Actinomyces israeli • Actinomyces naeslundi
Bifidobacterium Bifidobacterium dentium
Clostridium Clostridium botulinumClostridium difficileClostridium novyiClostridium tetaniClostridium perfringensClostridium septicumClostridium ulcerans
Lactobacillus Lactobacillus acidophilus
Propionibacterium Propionibacterium acnesPropionibacterium propionicus
Go
coke
aerobic
Acinetobacter Acinetobacter calcoaceticus
Moraxella Moraxella catarrhalisMoraxella lacunata
Neisseria Neisseria gonorrhoeaeNeisseria meningitidis • Non-pathogenic species of Neisseria
anaerobic
Veillonella Veillonella alcalescensVeillonella parvula
cocobacilli
aerobic
Rickettsia Rickettsia prowazekiiRickettsia rickettsiiRickettsia typhi
sticks
aerobic
Alcaligentes Alkaligentes feacalis
Bartonella Bartonella bacilliformisBartonella henselaeBartonella quintana
Bordetella Bordetella bronchisepticaBordetella parapertussisBordetella pertussis
Brucella Brucella abortusBrucella canisBrucella melitensisBrucella suis
Burkholderia Burkholderia cepaciaBurkholderia malleiBurkholderia pseudomallei
Francisella Francisella tularensis
Legionella Legionella pneumophila
Kingella Kingella denitrificansKingella kingaeKingella oralis
Pseudomonas Pseudomonas aeruginosaPseudomonas fluorescens
Stenotrophomonas Stenotrophomonas maltophilia
facultatively anaerobic
Actinobacillus Actinobacillus equliActinobacillus lignieresii
Aeromonas Aermonas caviaeAeromonas hydrophilaAeromonas sobria
Afipia Afipia felis
Citrobacter Citrobacter freundiCitrobacter koseri
Eikenella Eikenella corrodens
Enterobacter Enterobacter aerogenesEnterobacter cloacae
Escherichia Escherichia coli
Haemophilus Haemophilus ducreyiHaemophilus haemolyticusHaemophilus influenzaeHaemophilus parainfluenzae
Klebsiella Klebsiella granulomatisKlebsiella oxytocaKlebsiella pneumoniae
Pasteurella Pasteurella haemolyticaPasteurella multocidaPasteurella ureae
Plesiomonas Plesiomonas shigelloides
Proteus Proteus mirabilisProteus vulgaris
Salmonella Salmonella Enteritidis • Salmonella Typhi • Salmonella Paratyphi
Serratia Serratia marcescens
Shigella Shigella boydiiShigella dysenteriaeShigella flexneriShigella sonnei
Vibrio Vibrio choleraeVibrio parahemolyticus
Yersinia Yersinia enterocoliticaYersinia pestisYersinia pseudotuberculosis
microaerophilic
Campylobacter Campylobacter coliCampylobacter fetusCampylobacter jejuni
Helicobacter Helicobacter pylori
anaerobic
Bacteroides Bacteroides fragilisBacteroides vulgatus
Fusobacterium Fusobacterium necrophorumFusobacterium nucleatumFusobacterium stabile
Leptotricha Leptotricha buccalis
Mobiluncus Mobiluncus curtisiiMobiluncus mulieris
Prevotella Prevotella melaninogenica
Porphyromonas Porphyromonas gingivalis
acid resistant
sticks
aerobic
Mycobacterium Atypical mycobacteriaMycobacterium tuberculosisMycobacterium leprae
non-stainable G +/-
spiral
strictly aerobic
Leptospira Leptospira biflexaLeptospira interrogansLeptospira parva
microaerophilic
Borrelia Borrelia burgdorferiBorrelia hermsiBorrelia recurrentisBorrelia vincenti
strictly anaerobic
Treponema Non-pathogenic treponemsTreponema carateumTreponema pallidumTreponema phagedenisTreponema pertenue
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