Portal:Questions for final examination in pathology (1. LF UK, GM)

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General Tips for the Pathology Exam[✎ edit | edit source]

Final Examination Questions[✎ edit | edit source]

A. General Pathology

  1. General mechanisms of the cell injury
  2. Cell death: necrosis, apoptosis
  3. Tissue and organ adaptation - definitions, examples
  4. Hyperplasia
  5. Hypertrophy
  6. Atrophy
  7. Metaplasia
  8. Pathology of cell organelles and cytoskeleton
  9. Metabolic disorders and intracellular metabolite accumulations
  10. Intracellular accumulation of lipids - steatosis
  11. Intracellular accumulation of proteins
  12. Amyloidosis
  13. Glycosaminoglycan accumulations (mucopolysaccharidoses), mucoviscidosis
  14. Disorders of saccharide metabolism (diabetes mellitus, glycogenoses)
  15. Exogenous pigmentations, including pneumoconioses
  16. Endogenous pigmentations
  17. Pathologic calcification
  18. Disorders of water transport, hydration and cell swelling
  19. Cardial findings in circulatory failure
  20. Extracardial findings in circulatory failure
  21. Thrombosis
  22. Embolism
  23. Hyperemia
  24. Ischemia
  25. Infarction
  26. Edema
  27. Dehydration
  28. Hemorrhage
  29. Faintness, shock and circulatory collapse
  30. Definition and causes of inflammation
  31. Macroscopic findings in inflammation
  32. Basic microscopic features of inflammation
  33. Acute inflammation
  34. Phases of inflammation
  35. Cellular events in inflammation
  36. Outcomes of acute inflammation Healing in acute inflammation
  37. Chronic inflammation
  38. Systematic in morphologic patterns of exudative inflammation
  39. Morphologic patterns of superficial inflammation and its healing
  40. Morphologic patterns of interstitial inflammation and its healing
  41. Granulomatous inflammatory disorders
  42. Tuberculosis – forms and findings
  43. Primary (preimmune) tuberculosis
  44. Secondary (reactivation, postprimary) tuberculosis
  45. Sarcoidosis
  46. Acquired syphilis
  47. Congenital syphilis
  48. Leprosy
  49. Systemic effects in inflammation
  50. Regeneration and repair
  51. Wound healing
  52. Healing of thrombi, hematomas and fractures
  53. Immune mechanisms of tissue injury
  54. Pathology of transplantation
  55. Autoimmune diseases
  56. Immunodeficiency
  57. Definition and classification of tumors
  58. Characteristics of benign, borderline and malignant tumors
  59. Local tumor growth Metastasis
  60. Hereditary and acquired preneoplastic conditions and lesions (precanceroses)
  61. Cancerogenes
  62. Molecular basis of neoplasia Genomic instability
  63. Tumor typing, grading and staging
  64. Tumor-like conditions (pseudotumors)
  65. Epithelium tumors
  66. Mesenchymal tumors
  67. Mesothelium tumors (mesotheliomas)
  68. Hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue tumors
  69. Neuroectodermal tumors
  70. Melanocytic tumors
  71. Germ cell tumors
  72. Mixed tumors
  73. Virus and host cell interactions
  74. Morphologic patterns of the most frequent viral infections of mucosae and skin
  75. Morphologic patterns of the most frequent viral infections of respiratory system
  76. Mechanisms of bacterial injury to cells and tissues
  77. Local and systemic changes in infections
  78. Morphologic patterns of the most frequent Gram-positive bacterial infections
  79. Morphologic patterns of the most frequent Gram-negative bacterial infections
  80. Acid-fast rods infections
  81. Spirochaetal infections
  82. Anaerobic infections
  83. Obligate intracellular bacterial infections
  84. Morphologic patterns of the most frequent intestinal parasitic diseases (giardiasis, amoebiasis, taeniasis, ascariasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, ancylostomiasis, )
  85. Morphologic patterns of the most frequent systemic parasitic diseases (trypanosomiasis, toxocariasis, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, hydatidasis, trichinosis, filariasis, )
  86. Toxoplasmosis
  87. Malaria
  88. Sexually transmitted infections
  89. Superficial mycoses
  90. Deep mycoses
  91. Chemical causes of diseases
  92. Physical causes of diseases
  93. Nutritional diseases
  94. Congenital developmental disorders – types, causes, pathogenesis, consequences

 B. Organ Pathology

B.1. Circulatory System
  1. Vasculitis
  2. Aneurysms
  3. Atherosclerosis
  4. Diseases of veins, varices
  5. Neoplasms of blood vessels
  6. Pathology of lymphatic vessels
  7. Congenital heart defects
  8. Ischemic heart disease
  9. Hypertension, heart in hypertension
  10. Pathology of pulmonary circulation
  11. Diseases of endocardium
  12. Rheumatic heart disease
  13. Infectious endocarditis
  14. Noninfectious endocarditides
  15. Valvular defects
  16. Diseases of myocardium
  17. Diseases of pericardium
  18. Age related heart diseases
  19. Neoplasms of heart
B.2. Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Systems
  1. Anemias
  2. Chronic myeloproliferative diseases
  3. Myelodysplastic syndromes
  4. Leukemias
  5. Plasma cell neoplasms and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition diseases
  6. Hemorrhagic diseases
  7. Inborn disorders of blood coagulation
  8. Acquired disorders of blood coagulation
  9. Lymphadenitides
  10. Non-inflammatory lymphadenopathies
  11. Neoplasms of lymph nodes and extranodal lymphatic tissue (lymphomas)
  12. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
  13. Hodgkin lymphoma (Hodgkin disease)
  14. Langerhans cell histiocytosis
  15. Splenomegaly
  16. Diseases of thymus
B.3. Respiratory System
  1. Non-neoplastic diseases of nose, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx
  2. Tumours of nose, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx
  3. Non-neoplastic diseases of larynx and trachea
  4. Tumours of larynx and trachea
  5. Bronchitis, bronchostenosis and bronchiectasia
  6. Astma bronchiale
  7. Disorders of lung aeration
  8. Disorders of lung circulation
  9. Lung edema
  10. Pulmonary trombembolism
  11. Diffuse alveolar damage
  12. Lung inflammation - classification
  13. Bronchopneumonia and lobar pneumonia
  14. Interstitial pneumonias
  15. Granulomatous lung inflammation
  16. Pneumoconioses
  17. Lung tumours
  18. Pathology content of the pleural cavity
  19. Pleuritis
  20. Tumours of the pleural cavity
B.4. Gastrointestinal System
  1. Oral cavity – regressive and metabolic changes, pigmentation
  2. Acute inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity
  3. Chronic inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity
  4. Tumours and pseudotumours of the oral soft tissues
  5. Orofacial epithelial neoplasms
  6. Developmental disorders of dentice
  7. Dental caries
  8. Pulpitis Periodontitis Parodontopathies
  9. Head and neck cysts
  10. Odontogenic tumours
  11. Non-neoplastic salivary gland diseases
  12. Neoplasms of salivary glands
  13. Diseases of pharynx and tonsils
  14. Non-neoplastic diseases of esophagus
  15. Tumours of esophagus
  16. Gastritis
  17. Peptic ulcer
  18. Neoplasms of stomach
  19. Diverticula
  20. Malabsorption syndromes
  21. Infectious inflammations of intestine
  22. Idiopathic inflammations of intestine
  23. Appendicitis
  24. Disorders of the bowel integrity and position
  25. Ileus
  26. Neoplasms of intestine
  27. Diseases of peritoneum
  28. Hernias
  29. Disorders of the liver development
  30. Regressive changes of the liver (necrosis, apoptosis, storage diseases, jaundice …)
  31. Metabolic liver diseases
  32. Icterus and cholestasis
  33. Viral and autoimmune hepatitides
  34. Immune inflammatory diseases of the intrahepatic biliary ducts
  35. Drug and chemicals related hepatopathies
  36. Liver cirrhosis
  37. Neoplasms and pseudotumours of the liver and intrahepatic biliary tree
  38. Non-neoplastic diseases of the gall bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts
  39. Neoplasms of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts
  40. Non-neoplastic diseases of pancreas
  41. Neoplasms of pancreas
B.5. Excretory System
  1. Developmental renal diseases
  2. Diseases of renal tubules and interstitium
  3. Morphology features of “benign” and malignant hypertension in kidney
  4. Atherosclerosis, infarction, and cortical necrosis in kidney
  5. Vasculitides affecting the kidney
  6. Diabetic nephropathy (glomerulosclerosis and other diabetes related kidney diseases)
  7. Rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis
  8. Glomerulopathies with nephrotic syndrome
  9. Diseases of glomerules manifesting with hematuria
  10. Systemic lupus erythematodes and its kidney manifestation
  11. Kidney transplantation and rejection morphology
  12. Neoplasms of kidney
  13. Non-neoplastic diseases of the urinary tract
  14. Neoplasms of the urinary tract
B.6. Male Genital System
  1. Non-neoplastic diseases of penis and scrotum
  2. Neoplasms of penis and scrotum
  3. Non-neoplastic diseases of testis
  4. Neoplasms of testis
  5. Non-neoplastic diseases of prostate and seminal vesicles
  6. Neoplasms of prostate and seminal vesicles
B.7. Female Genital System and Breast
  1. Non-neoplastic diseases of vulva
  2. Neoplasms of vulva
  3. Non-neoplastic diseases of vagina
  4. Neoplasms of vagina
  5. Non-neoplastic diseases of uterine cervix
  6. Cervical precanceroses
  7. Neoplasms of uterine cervix
  8. Non-neoplastic diseases of uterine body
  9. Neoplasms of uterine body
  10. Diseases of salpinx
  11. Ovarian cysts
  12. Epithelial ovarian neoplasms
  13. Germinal tumours of ovary
  14. Gonadostromal and mixed tumours o ovary
  15. Diseases of placenta
  16. Pathology of pregnancy
  17. Non-neoplastic diseases of breast
  18. Neoplasms of breast
  19. Diseases of male breast
B.8. Nervous System
  1. Brain edema, hydrocephalus
  2. Disorders of the CNS circulation - ischemia, hemorrhage
  3. Intermeningeal bleeding
  4. Fractures of the skull, brain commotion and contusion
  5. Meningitis, encephalitis, myelitis
  6. Degenerative diseases of CNS
  7. Demyelinisation diseases
  8. Prion diseases
  9. Epilepsy - epileptic syndrome
  10. Perinatal CNS damage
  11. Neoplasms of brain and meninges
B.9. Musculoskeletal System
  1. Disorders of the skeletal development
  2. Rickets and osteomalacia
  3. Osteitis fibrosa cystica and renal osteopathy
  4. Bone atrophy: osteopenia and osteoporosis
  5. Necrosis of bone
  6. Fractures and their healing
  7. Bone inflammation
  8. Tumours and tumour-like lesions of bone
  9. Non-neoplastic diseases of joints
  10. Pseudotumours and tumours of joints
  11. Diseases of tendons and tendon sheaths
  12. Diseases of muscles
B.10. Endocrine System
  1. Non-neoplastic diseases of the pituitary gland
  2. Neoplasms of the pituitary gland
  3. Diseases of pineal gland
  4. Non-neoplastic thyroid diseases and thyroidal syndromes
  5. Neoplasms of thyroid gland
  6. Non-neoplastic diseases of parathyroid glands and parathyroidal syndromes
  7. Neoplasms of the parathyroid gland
  8. Non-neoplastic diseases of adrenal cortex
  9. Neoplasms of adrenal cortex
  10. Adrenocortical syndromes
  11. Diseases of adrenal medulla and related syndromes
  12. Diseases of Langerhans islets and related syndromes
B.11. Integumentary System
  1. Non-infectious inflammations of the skin
  2. Infectious inflammations of the skin
  3. Inflammations of hair follicles
  4. Benign neoplasms of the skin (epithelial and mesenchymal)
  5. Malignant neoplasms of the skin (epithelial and mesenchymal)
  6. Pigmented nevi and melanoma
B.12. Perinatal Pathology
  1. Mors praenatalis and mors neonatalis
  2. Perinatal injuries
  3. Early and late asphyxia syndrome
  4. Neonatal brain bleeding, necrotizing enterocolitis and other complications of perinatal period