Pleural puncture (pediatrics)

From WikiLectures

Scheme of puncture of an extensive left-sided pneumothorax
Urgent indication
  • child is in a supine position;
  • if there is time, we will perform adequate analgosedation;
  • the injection is made above the upper edge of the rib in the medioclavicular line in the 2nd-3rd. intercostals.

Cave!!!.png The upper edge of the rib must be respected because of possible injury to the nerve-vascular bundle that runs along the lower edge of the rib

  • 2nd intercostal is located immediately below the clavicle;
  • we preferably use i.v. "blue" cannula (22G cannula for newborns, 18G cannula for the elderly);
  • after penetration into the interpleural space, we pull out the needle and introduce the cannula deeper;
  • urgent air evacuation is carried out using a syringe, otherwise it is better to connect the cannula using a connecting tube and a three-way cock to a 20 ml syringe, which we then evacuate the air;
  • in the case of a super-urgency with a tension PNO, we convert the tension PNO to an open one using a needle or, better, a set of needles.
Drainage systems in pediatric patients

Definitive treatment consists in the introduction of a chest drain with active suction;

  • the patient is in a supine position, the affected side can be slightly supported, the hand on the affected side is raised behind the head;
  • the injection site is the 4th or 5th intercostal space between the front and middle axillary lines, we disinfect the injection site, cover and infiltrate with 1% mesocaine;
  • at the injection site, we make a small horizontal skin incision with a scalpel, through it we then bluntly penetrate the upper edge of the rib (again, we must protect the nerve-vascular bundle running along the lower edge); drain is captured in the pean and introduced into the pleural cavity;
  • penetration is manifested by a sudden loss of resistance;
  • we close the incision, fix the drain and connect it to continuous suction with negative pressure (system according to Bülau or aqua seal).

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Source[edit | edit source]

  • HAVRÁNEK, Jiří: Pleural puncture. (edited)

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