Oropharyngeal tumors

From WikiLectures

WHO and oropharyngeal cancer deaths in 2012 per million persons

Oropharyngeal tumors are becoming more common today. In men, these tumors occur up to 7 times more often than in women. Risk factors include high-risk HPV infections , smoking and alcohol. The average age is between 50-60 years.  Currently, mainly HPV + lesions occur in younger patients.

Tumor types[edit | edit source]


  • Benign tumors are rare (in children - hemangiomas , lymphangiomas , which may narrow the airways, hemangiomas may bleed).
  • Malignant tumors
    • The vast majority are differentiated squamous cell carcinomas .
    • Adenocarcinoma is less common .
    • Lymphomas ( Waldeyer 's circuit ,…), more rarely malignant melanoma , sarcoma appear among mesenchymal tumors .


  • Propagation of tumors from the environment (mainly from the gl. Parotis).

Symptoms[edit | edit source]

In the beginning, tumors do not have a specific symptomatology. The first symptom is usually sign of inflammation in specific area (unlike inflammation, the problems are often one-sided):

  • scratching in the throat, pain, foreign body sensation, dysphagia , blood in the saliva, rhinolalia.

The first symptoms are often overlooked (due to the most commonly affected social group).

  • Over time, the symptoms become more pronounced and the pain may shoot into the ear.
  • Exulceration → foetor ex ore .
  • Sometimes regional metastases may be the first symptom.

Diagnostics[edit | edit source]

  • Palpation is of great importance .
  • We take a biopsy , indicated panendoscopy to verify the scope of the process.

Clinical picture[edit | edit source]

  • Tumor macroscopy :
    • only as a thickening of the mucosa;
    • as an exophyte of various shapes;
    • have the form of an ulcer - it can grow into tonsils, the root of the tongue, the palate.
  • Patients usually arrive at a late stage - at a time when the tumor has exceeded 4 cm.
  • 40% already have metastases in the trigonum caroticum .
  • The 3 most common locations are the tonsils, the root of the tongue and the posterior wall of the pharynx (hereinafter eg floor arches).
  • Forms:
    • The most common passes from the almond to the root of the tongue, to the trigonum retromolare.
    • The second most common form comes from the root of the tongue and spreads along the edge of the tongue.
  • Spread caudally is rare.
Cryptogenic tumor
  • A small tumor of the tonsils or root of the tongue, which is not detectable by examination methods.

Treatment[edit | edit source]

Surgery, radiotherapy and their combinations are used in the treatment of oropharyngeal tumors.

Searchtool right.svg For more information see Treatment of oropharyngeal tumors.

Links[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

KLOZAR, Jan, et al. Special otorhinolaryngology. 1st edition. Prague: Karolinum, 2005. 224 pp.  ISBN 80-246-1125-2 .

Source[edit | edit source]

  • BENEŠ, Jiří. Study materials  [online]. © 2007. [feeling. 14. 12. 2011]. < http://jirben2.chytrak.cz/materialy/orl_jb.doc >.

References[edit | edit source]

  1. ↑ KLOZAR, Jan, et al. Special otorhinolaryngology. 1st edition. Prague: Karolinum, 2005. 224 pp. 67–72. ISBN 80-246-1125-2 .