Non-cancerous diseases of the penis and scrotum

From WikiLectures

The penis can be affected by congenital anomalies, inflammation and tumors.

Congenital anomalies[edit | edit source]

Hypospadias a epispadias[edit | edit source]

Abnormal urethral outlets on the ventral area of the penis (hypospadias – more common, 1:300 newborn boys) or on the dorsal area of the penis (epispadias) may enter due to malfomations of the urethral furrow and urethral canal. These anomalies may occur alone or with other birth defects (such as urinary tract malformations, testicular descent disorders). The outcome is often narrowed and obstruction occurs, which is associated with the risk of urinary tract infection and the possibility of cancer.

Phimosis[edit | edit source]

Phimosis is a condition where the opening in the foreskin is so small that it prevents the foreskin from pulling over the glans penis. It can be congenital or acquired. Secretion and detritus (= smegmata) accumulate in the foreskin sacc. It is associated with the development of a secondary infection that can result into scarring and it is also associated with an increased risk of developing a cancer.

Inflammation[edit | edit source]

Inflammation of the penis affects the glans and foreskin. Specific inflammation (syphylis, gonorrhea, granuloma inguinale, lymphogranuloma venereum, herpes genitalis) are sexually transmitted. The skin of the penis can also be affected by systemic skin inflammations – eczema, psoriasis, lichen planus.

Balanopostitis[edit | edit source]

Balanopostitis (inflammation of the glans penis and foreskin) is non-specific infection that can be cause by a wide range of microorganisms. The most common agents are Candida albicans, anaerobic bacteria, Gardnerella and pyogenic bacteria pyogenic bacteria. Most cases are caused by poor hygiene in uncircumcised men, where the accumulation of corneal epithelial cells, sweat and detritus acts as a local irritant. Persistence often of purulent infection leads into inflammatory ulcerations to scarring and is a common cause of phimosis.

References[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  • KUMAR, [edited by] Vinay – KUMAR, Vinay – PERKINS, Jon C. Aster ; with illustrations by James A. Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease : [object Object]. 9. edition. Philadelphia : Elsevier Saunders, c2015. ISBN 9781455726134.