Macroscopic manifestations of inflammation

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Four so-called Cels signs are derived from the macroscopic manifestations of skin inflammation, to which Virchow added a fifth:

  1. rubor - redness of the inflammatory focus caused by hyperemia;
  2. calor - heating of the inflammatory focus;
  3. dolor - soreness of the inflammatory focus by irritation of peripheral nerve endings with acidic pH and cytokines;
  4. tumor - swelling of the inflammatory focus by expansion of capillaries and inflammatory edema;
  5. functio laesa - attenuation or, on the contrary, increased function (e.g. hypersecretion of mucus by an inflamed mucous membrane).

General manifestations of inflammation[edit | edit source]

  1. Elevated temperature;
  2. leukocytosis;
  3. increased sedimentation;
  4. increased levels of acute phase proteins.

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

  • POVÝŠIL, Ctibor – ŠTEINER, Ivo. Obecná patologie. 1. edition. Galen, 2011. 290 pp. ISBN 978-80-7262-773-8.