Macroscopic manifestations of inflammation
Four so-called Cels signs are derived from the macroscopic manifestations of skin inflammation, to which Virchow added a fifth:
- rubor - redness of the inflammatory focus caused by hyperemia;
- calor - heating of the inflammatory focus;
- dolor - soreness of the inflammatory focus by irritation of peripheral nerve endings with acidic pH and cytokines;
- tumor - swelling of the inflammatory focus by expansion of capillaries and inflammatory edema;
- functio laesa - attenuation or, on the contrary, increased function (e.g. hypersecretion of mucus by an inflamed mucous membrane).
General manifestations of inflammation[edit | edit source]
- Elevated temperature;
- increased sedimentation;
- increased levels of acute phase proteins.
Links[edit | edit source]
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Source[edit | edit source]
- POVÝŠIL, Ctibor – ŠTEINER, Ivo. Obecná patologie. 1. edition. Galen, 2011. 290 pp. ISBN 978-80-7262-773-8.