Esophagus development

From WikiLectures

Esophagus is formed roughly in the 4. week caudally to the primitive pharynx. It is separated from the foundations of the respiratory system by the tracheoesophageal septum. At first the esophagus is short, but rapidly lengthens as the heart and lungs descend. In the seventh week, it will grow to its final relative length. The epithelium and the glands of the esophagus come from the entoderm of the foregut, in the upper two thirds the musculature of the esophagus is striated, it arises from the mesenchyme of the caudal pharyngeal arches and is innervated by the n. vagus, the lower third is made up of smooth muscle from the adjacent splanchnic mesenchyme, which is innervated by the autonomic nervous system.

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  • SADLER, Thomas W. Langmanova lékařská embryologie : Překlad 10. vydání. 1. edition. Praha : Grada Publishing, a.s, 2011. 432 pp. ISBN 978-80-247-2640-3.
  • MOORE, Keith L – PERSAUD, T.V.N. Zrození člověka : Embryologie s klinickým zaměřením. 1. edition. 2000. 564 pp. ISBN 80-85866-94-3.