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Emotions form an important component of psychological events. They can be defined as a set of psychological and physiological phenomena.

Emotion feature[edit | edit source]


  • characterize an individual's reaction to a given situation
  • they represent an important governing regulatory mechanism
  • they direct the activities of the individual
  • they satisfy our needs
  • they automatically direct human tendencies and relationships
  • they overcome even instincts
  • lead to suppression of the fear of death
  • they play an important role in the field of sexual desire , etc.

Experiencing emotions[edit | edit source]

Emotional experiences can be divided into:

  • experiences – reflect the positive or negative value of the stimulus situation in relation to the individual's needs
  • affects (= short-term attunements) and moods (= prolonged attunements)
← these are positive or negative stimuli to objects and phenomena of the external and internal environment and to one's own manifestations
← used for tactical programs
  • feelings and higher emotions – positive or negative stimuli regarding perspective, long-term relationships
← main – love, hate
← feelings serve strategic goals

The emotional circuit and its mediators[edit | edit source]

  • in addition to subjective experience, emotions also have somatic-vegetative manifestations, mainly negative emotions
    Laugh heals. But only those who can laugh. (Jiří Žaček)
    • motor manifestations can be suppressed (laughter, crying, gestures), vegetative manifestations cannot (changes in muscle tone, blood pressure , pulse, etc.) → it can lead to psychosomatic diseases
    • the anatomical basis for the emergence and experience of emotions is represented by the so-called emotional circuit:
    • it represents: hypothalamus, pituitary gland, adrenal cortex, reticular formation, thalamus, limbic system, cortex
    • it involves the interplay of subcortical areas with the crust
  • mediators playing a role in mood:

The distribution of emotions[edit | edit source]

According to the basic focus[edit | edit source]

  • positive, pleasant (joy, love)
  • negative, unpleasant (grief, hatred)
  • sthenic, mobilizing (anger)
  • asthenic, demobilizing (sadness)

According to intensity and time course[edit | edit source]

  • emotional coloring of feelings and perceptions (pleasant, unpleasant)
  • affects (short-term, violent emotional reactions)
  • moods (prolonged emotional states)
  • feelings and higher emotions

By hierarchical arrangement[edit | edit source]

  • lower (stimuli from the vital area, satisfaction of basic needs)
  • higher (social, specifically human)
    • intellectual feelings (associated with intellectual activity)
    • aesthetic feelings
    • moral feelings
    • ethical feelings

Affects and their disorders[edit | edit source]

  • rapid-onset and rapid-fading emotional responses
  • accompanied by distinct vegetative and mimic reactions
  • tendency to reckless behavior (can be handled freely, but needs to be acquired through education and self-discipline)
  • the emergence depends on dispositions and the immediate state of emotionality
  • every affect tends to discharge
  1. displacement of the affect – it is discharged, for example, on another person
  2. stagnation of affect - after a series of insufficiently intense and cumulative stimuli, the last one causes an inadequate explosion

Affective Disorders[edit | edit source]

  • Pathetic affect
    • unusually intense
    • at its peak there will be a short-term clouding of consciousness → a serious event may occur (murder, suicide, etc.) ← memory is missing
    • relatively rare
    • Etiology :
      • after a severe attack of epilepsy
      • alcohol
      • dementia
      • even in normal people - during starvation, exhaustion, etc.
  • Pathetic affective irritability
    • tendency to excessively strong affects
    • Etiology :
      • mainly in organic brain conditionsatherosclerosis , dementia, oligophrenia, intoxication, alcoholism
  • Paroxysmal affects
    • Etiology :
  • Emotional lability
    • changeable emotions even to weak stimuli
    • Etiology :
      • the cause is natural
      • organic disorder (atherosclerosis, dementia)
  • Emotional incontinence
    • reaction with pathetic crying even to non-emotional stimuli
    • Etiology :
      • typically in cerebral atherosclerosis
  • Hypersensitivity
    • easy emergence of emotions - they are more permanent than in lability
  • Affective ambivalence
    • opposite emotions at the same time (love x hate)
    • Etiology :
  • Phobia
    • intrusive fears also have an emotional component, but intrusiveness is characteristic

Moods and their disorders[edit | edit source]

  • mood is a long-lasting setting of the emotional system
  • it is the base for a number of psychic processes
  • it is not tied to the content of consciousness, but affects the character of other functions – attention, inculcation, memory , alertness, evaluation, motivation, affects, etc.
  • intense, repeated exposure to certain stimuli can modify mood:
    • physical factors – environmental temperature, atmospheric pressure, geomagnetic field, humidity, sun, length of day, season, time of day
    • chemical factors – poisons, drugs, psycholeptics, dysleptics, dysphoria, antidepressants
    • metabolic factors – irritability in hypoglycemia and hyperthyroidism, anxiety in cardiac and asthmatic patients, premenstrual syndrome , postpartum depression , toxic infection, exhaustion, hunger, weight loss, CNS diseases
    • psychological factors - mainly mood quality

Pathetic moods[edit | edit source]

  • characteristic :
    • intensity and duration (months to years)
    • independence of emergence from psychogenic factors
    • influence on personality
  • it is important to realize that there is a pathic endogenous mood – folk psychological wisdom attributes every mood change to an experience
  • types:
    • euphoric = blissful
      • occurrence: frontal lobe affections
    • expansive = high activity, self-confidence
      • incidence: mania , hebephrenia
    • exalted = feeling of well-being, enthusiasm
      • incidence: epilepsy, hysterical psychotic states
    • apathetic = reduced pace, indifference, loss of initiative
      • incidence: depression, dementia, drug addiction
    • explosive = explosive
      • incidence: epilepsy, chronic alcoholism, explosive psychopathy
    • clueless = inability to make a decision, is experienced unpleasantly
      • incidence: depression, schizophrenia
    • anxious = a feeling of tension, restlessness, threatened suicide
      • incidence: depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, dementia
    • depressed = sadness, desolation, fear, high risk of suicide!
      • incidence: depression, schizophrenia, epilepsy, dementia

Feeling and their disorders[edit | edit source]

  • the most common disorders are:
    • undeveloped feelings
    • loss of higher feelings
    • reduction of higher emotions
  • Etiology :
    • innately - insensitive, ruthless people
    • organic disorder – oligophrenia, tumors, encephalitis, injuries, etc.
  • manifestations :
    • egocentrism, bad taste, tactlessness, bluntness, rudeness
    • infantile and hysterical personality i - on the one hand warm and devoted, on the other ruthless and hateful
    • passions = exaggerated feelings – collecting, gambling, careerism, jealousy, etc.
    • some hypersensitive overly conscientious persons – excessive development of higher feelings

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