Diffuse axonal involvement/PGS
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a very severe multiple axon injury that is severed by rotational and translational forces acting on the head (see figure), most commonly in the corpus callosum and brainstem. The severity of the subsequent condition is exacerbated by the fact that the interruption of axons leads to potassium leaching, which has a toxic effect on the surrounding brain tissue. In DAI, diagnosis is based on history of head injury, clinical condition (severe impairment of consciousness) and MRI imaging (CT is unhelpful, changes are mostly below its level of resolution). It is the most common cause of the subsequent vegetative state in trauma patients.