Defensive breathing reflexes/Repetitorium

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Concepts assumed[edit | edit source]

Reflexes from the upper respiratory tract[edit | edit source]

  1. Sneezing: after irritation nasopharynx a deep breath and a quick, forceful exhalation through the nose and mouth.
  2. Protective apnea (Kratschmer's reflex): after inhalation of an irritant by irritation in the upper respiratory tract apnea, closure of the glottis, bronchoconstriction.
  3. Aspiration Reflex.
  4. Expiratory reflex.

Reflexes from the lower respiratory parts[edit | edit source]

Under normal conditions, the airways are cleared by the action of the ciliated epithelium. If this mechanism is insufficient, reflex mechanisms start.

Cough[edit | edit source]

  • After a deep breath, forced exhalation with the glottis closed, accompanied by a significant increase in intrathoracic pressure.
  • Increased intrathoracic pressure compresses the pars membranacea trachea inward and thus narrows its lumen. Then the glottis is quickly opened and the trachea is cleared by a rapid flow of air (large pressure gradient, narrowing of the trachea, turbulent flow).
  • Tusogenic zone.
  • Cough: tracheobronchial, laryngeal, productive, non-productive.


  • Loss of cough defense function.
  • Cough after operations.
  • Pathological cough - neurogenic, chronic.

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