|Relation to oxygen||microaerophilic|
|Cultivation||special cultivation soils|
|Antigens||membrane protein and lipopolysaccharide antigen, flagellar protein|
|Source||warm-blooded animals (poultry, pig)|
|Transmission||ingestion of contaminated food and water, contact with an infected animal, sexual intercourse|
|Occurrence||gastrointestinal tract of warm-blooded animals|
|Incubation time||1-7 days|
|Diagnostics||rectal swab and cultivation on selective soils, latex agglutination (presence of antigens in stool), serology|
|Therapy||rehydration, macrolides, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides (ATB only for more serious infections)|
Template:Infobox - bakterie The genus Campylobacter are Gram-negative , thermophilic bacteria adapted to the digestive tract of most warm-blooded animals. It belongs to the family Campylobacteraceae, the order Campylobacterales, the class Epsilon Proteobacteria, the strain Proteobacteria, the domain Bacteria.
The genus includes 18 species , 11 of which have been shown to cause the disease. Pathogenic species are transmissible to humans and cause campylobacter enteritis. The best known members of the genus are C. jejuni, C. coli, C. lari, C. fetus and C. pylori (now known as Helicobacter pylori ).
Morphology[edit | edit source]
Bacteria of this genus are spiral or curved non-sporulating rods. If they get in adverse conditions, they can form coco-shaped forms. They have polarly located flagella, which ensure mobility.
Cultivation[edit | edit source]
Campylobacter needs special conditions for its growth. They grow in a microaerophilic environment, ie. in a low oxygen environment (usually 5% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide is used for capture) . They require special cultivation soils and sufficient humidity, the optimal temperature is 42-43 ° C . In stool culture, a mixture of antibiotics is added to block the growth of other bacteria present (Skirrow's medium). They form creeping colonies within 2-7 days .
Due to these growth demands, they were not identified as human pathogens until the end of the 20th century.
Occurence and resistance in the environment[edit | edit source]
In nature, microbes of the genus Campylobacter are very common, they occur in the intestines of animals (mainly pigs - C. coli , poultry - C. jejuni and C. lari and cattle - C. fetus ) and in birds. They are able to survive longer at refrigerator temperatures (4 ° C) in water, milk, food and faeces; they remain infectious for about 3 weeks. They can be destroyed, for example, by pasteurization, acidic pH or chlorination. They are extremely sensitive to drying and most of the disinfectants used.
Disease[edit | edit source]
In animal hosts, campylobacters are usually asymptomatic, but can cause abortions in sheep, for example. In humans, pathogenic species cause campylobacteriosis (most commonly C. jejuni ).
See Campylobacter Enteritis for more information .
Links[edit | edit source]
Related articles[edit | edit source]
Reference[edit | edit source]
- BEDNÁŘ, Marek, Andrej SOUČEK and Věra FRAŇKOVÁ, et al. Medical microbiology: Bacteriology, virology, parasitology. 1st edition. Prague: Marvil, 1999. 558 pp. 284-285. ISBN 8023802976 .
- ↑Jump up to:a b BENEŠ, Jiří, et al. Infectious medicine. 1st edition. Galén, 2009. 651 pp. 242-244. ISBN 978-80-7262-644-1 .
[edit | edit source]
- Centers for disease control and prevention. Campylobacter [online. [cit. 2014-06-02]]
- World health organization. Campylobacter [online. [cit. 2014-06-03]]
Resources[edit | edit source]
- BENEŠ, Jiří. Infectious medicine. 1st edition edition. Galén, 2009. 651 pp. ISBN 978-80-7262-644-1 .
- JURAJDA, Vladimir. Poultry and bird diseases: bacterial and fungal infections. 1st edition. Brno: Veterinární a Farmaceutická univerzita, 2003. 185 pp. ISBN 80-7305-464-7 .
- BEDNÁŘ, Marek, Andrej SOUČEK and Věra FRAŇKOVÁ, et al. Medical microbiology: Bacteriology, virology, parasitology. 1st edition. Prague: Marvil, 1996. 558 pp. ISBN 8023802976 .
|non-stainable G +/-||