Bowel emptying disorders
Constipation[edit | edit source]
Constipation is defined as the difficulty of emptying stiff stools and the inability to spontaneously defecate. This is partially subjective. It can be an isolated problem (dyschezia) or a symptom accompanying another disease (organic, secondary constipation). It is very important to distinguish organic constipation from functional constipation.
Definition of constipation according to the Roman criteria II (1999)[edit | edit source]
Some of the following must apply:
- less than 3 stools per week;
- solid stool in more than 25% of defecations;
- feeling of incomplete emptying in more than 25% of defecations;
- the need for manual maneuvers to facilitate more than 25% of defecations (digital stool evacuation, pelvic floor support).
Pathogenesis[edit | edit source]
Decreased water content in the stool, prolonged passage time through the digestive tract, and/or the presence of a mechanical barrier in the terminal part of the digestive tract contribute to constipation.
Therapy[edit | edit source]
Regimen and dietary measures[edit | edit source]
- Regular daily eating regime, sufficient fluid intake, and enough fiber in the diet (whole grains, fruits, vegetables).
- Plenty of exercise, belly massage, and no laxatives.
- Training of defecation reflex with the use of physiological gastrocolic reflex (after waking up a glass of water, usual morning tasks, breakfast, with an interval of 20–30 minutes attempted defecation).
Pharmacological treatment[edit | edit source]
Lactulose, saline laxatives, laxative minerals, enemas, drugs stimulating colonic motility.
Supposed constipation[edit | edit source]
- Improper judgement or psychological disorder.
Pseudoobstruction[edit | edit source]
- It occurs with low food intake.
Encopresis[edit | edit source]
- Involuntary bowel emptying (into clothes, to the floor)
Soiling[edit | edit source]
- involuntary leakage of stool in chronic constipation
- stagnant stool in the rectum escapes
- may be mistaken for diarrhea
Stool incontinence[edit | edit source]
Diarrhea[edit | edit source]
Diarrhea can be characterized as frequent bowel movements. This is a symptom with considerable subjective variation. Diarrhea is a common manifestation of various digestive disorders. Diarrheal diseases cause up to 20 million deaths a year worldwide, with young children most at risk.
Links[edit | edit source]
Reference[edit | edit source]
- KLENER, Pavel, et al. Vnitřní lékařství. 3. edition. Praha : Galén, 2006. pp. 608-609. ISBN 80-7262-430-X.
- BENEŠ, Jiří. Studijní materiály [online]. ©2007. [cit. 2009]. <http://www.jirben.wz.cz/>.
- KLENER, Pavel, et al. Vnitřní lékařství. 3. edition. Praha : Galén, 2006. pp. 610-613. ISBN 80-7262-430-X.
Literature[edit | edit source]
- HRODEK, Otto – VAVŘINEC, Jan, et al. Pediatrie. 1. edition. Praha : Galén, 2002. ISBN 80-7262-178-5.
- ŠAŠINKA, Miroslav – ŠAGÁT, Tibor – KOVÁCS, László, et al. Pediatria. 2. edition. Bratislava : Herba, 2007. ISBN 978-80-89171-49-1.