Basic biogenic amines

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Biogenic amines are organic nitrogenous substances with high biological activity, which are formed by decarboxylation of amino acids with the simultaneous release of CO2, the cofactor is pyridoxal phosphate.

Ethanolamine[edit | edit source]

It is formed by decarboxylation of serine. It is triple methylated to form choline. Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine. The enzyme choline acetyltransferase catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. Ethanolamine and choline are part of phospholipids - phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.


Dopamine[edit | edit source]

It is formed from tyrosine. The enzyme tyrosinhydroxylase hydroxylates tyrosin to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA). Subsequently, DOPA-decarboxylase (PLP cofactor) cleaves CO2 to form dopamine. noradrenalin can be formed from dopamine by hydroxylatio and then adrenaline by methilation.

γ-aminobutyric acid = GABA[edit | edit source]

It is formed from glutamate by glutamate decarboxylase.


Histamine[edit | edit source]

It is formed from histidine by histidine decarboxylase.


β-alanine[edit | edit source]

It is formed by decarboxylation of aspartate, but they are also formed during the breakdown of pyrimidine bases. It is part of Coenzyme A.

Cysteamine[edit | edit source]

It is formed by decarboxylation of cystein. It is part of coenzyme A.


Tryptophan derivatives[edit | edit source]

Tryptamine[edit | edit source]


It is formed by decarboxylation of an aromatic amino acid tryptophan. It is a regulatory molecule whose function is still little known.

Serotonin[edit | edit source]

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) is also a biogenic amine. It arises from tryptophan after hydroxylation (by tryptophan-5-monoxygenase with the participation of tetrahydrobiopterine) and the after decarboxylation.

Synthesis of serotonin

Melatonin[edit | edit source]

Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is synthesized from serotonin by N-acetylation followed by O-methylation.

Synthesis of melatonin

Links[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

Used literature[edit | edit source]

  • MATOUŠ, Bohuslav, et al. Základy lékařské chemie a biochemie. 1. edition. Praha : Galén, 2010. pp. 540. ISBN 978-80-7262-702-8.