Bacterial Gastroenteritis

From WikiLectures

The bacterial diarrhoeal diseases include (in order of frequency of occurrence in the Czech Republic)[1]:


Campylobacter enteritis[edit | edit source]

Iron
  • agent: Campylobacter jejuni (gram-negative rods),
  • reservoir: pets, infected people,
  • transmission: contaminated food (meat),
  • incubation period: 2–7 days,
  • clinical presentation: fever, fatigue, muscle aches, watery diarrhea, sometimes with blood, convulsive abdominal pain,
  • diagnosis: stool cultivation on special soils,
  • treatment: symptomatic, event. macrolides,
  • complications: post-infectious arthritis; exceptionally organ involvement (hematogenous spread).[2][3]


Salmonella enteritis[edit | edit source]

Iron
  • or non- typhoid salmonellosis,
  • agent: Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium (gram-negative rods),
  • reservoir: cattle, pigs, chickens,
  • transmission: contaminated food (eggs, meat, milk) and drinking water,
  • infectious dose: high,
  • incubation period: 10–12 hours,
  • clinical presentation: vomiting, watery to green stools, abdominal pain, fever, headache, general weakness,
  • diagnosis: stool cultivation,
  • treatment: symptomatic, event. fluoroquinolones (adults only),
  • complications: septicemia, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, soft tissue abscesses.[2][3]

Typhoid fever[edit | edit source]

Iron
  • agent: Salmonella typhi (Gram-negative rod),
  • reservoir: human,
  • transmission: in contact with the patient or bacillus carrier,
  • incubation period: about 2 weeks,
  • clinical presentation: creeping onset; fever, fatigue, headache, swelling of the tongue with a whitish or brownish coating, bloody diarrhea or constipation, then stool-like pea, splenomegaly, impaired consciousness, redness of the abdomen, alterations in general condition,
  • diagnosis: stool cultivation,
  • treatment: symptomatic (rehydration, correction of the internal environment) and antibiotic (ampicillin or cotrimoxazole),
  • prevention: vaccination before travel to risk areas.[3]

Shigellosis[edit | edit source]

Iron
  • or bacillary dysentery,
  • Agent: Shigella sonnei (most common in the Czech Republic), Sh. flexneri, Sh. dysenteriae, Sh. boydii (gram-negative),
  • reservoir: human (sick or bacillus carrier),
  • transmission: hands contaminated with stool,
  • infectious dose: very low,
  • incubation period: 3 days,
  • clinical presentation: fever, abdominal pain, tenezms, watery stools with mucus and veins of blood (acute ulcerative colitis),
  • diagnosis: stool cultivation,
  • treatent: symptomatic, event. cotrimoxazole, ampicillin, fluoroquinolones in adults (ATB suitable only in the first days of the disease); isolation,
  • complications: perforation of the large intestine; meningoencephalitis, myocarditis, otitis, pneumonia, phlebitis.[2][3]



Links[edit | edit source]

Realted articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  1. http://www.szu.cz/publikace/data/vybrane-infekcni-nemoci-v-cr-v-letech-1998-2007-absolutne
  2. a b c HRODEK, Otto – VAVŘINEC, Jan, et al. Pediatrie. 1. edition. Praha : Galén, 2002. pp. 607-609. ISBN 80-7262-178-5.
  3. a b c d MUNTAU, Ania Carolina. Pediatrie. 4. edition. Praha : Grada, 2009. pp. 166-169. ISBN 978-80-247-2525-3.

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