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Staging is determination of the extent of the tumor. A number of systems are used for staging. The most common is the TNM system.

pTNM postoperative, pathological classification
yTNM posttherapeutic classification
rTNM recurrence classification

  • T (tumor; indicates tumor size)
  1. Tx (size cannot be determined)
  2. T0 (none)
  3. T1
  4. T2
  5. T3
  6. T4 (growing into surrounding tissues - skin etc.)
  7. Tis (carcinoma in situ)
  • N (nodes; tells us if regional lymph nodes) are affected
  1. Nx (cannot be determined)
  2. N0 (regional lymph node are not affected)
  3. N1
  4. N2
  5. N3
  • M (Metastases; tells, if distant metastases have been established)
  1. Mx (cannot be determined)
  2. M0 (no metastases presented )
  3. M1 (metastases present)

In the final analysis 5 stages with different prognosis are created:

  • St.0 – carcinoma in situ; without metastases
  • St.1 – small, invasive carcinoma; without metastases
  • St.2 – larger invasive carcinoma; there may be minor lymph node involvement
  • St.3 – extensive invasive carcinoma; extensive lymph node involvement
  • St.4 – distant metastases in any extent of primary tumour

from other staging systems should be mentioned:

References[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

  • BENEŠ, Jiří. Study materials  [online]. © 2007. [feeling. 2010-03]. < >.

References[edit | edit source]

  • PETRUŽELKA, Luboš and Bohuslav KONOPÁSEK, et al. Clinical oncology. 1st edition. Prague: Karolinum, 2003.  ISBN 80-246-0395-0 .