Signs of Peritoneal Irritation
Signs of peritoneal irritation normally occur if there is any pathological process in the abdominal cavity. They are characterized by pain or tenderness on palpation. The irritation can be marked or diffused.
Défense Musculaire (Muscle Guarding)[edit | edit source]
The musles of abdominal wall are contracted. It is a reflex response of an organism that is intended to prevent the spread of irritation. The patient´s abdominal wall palpation is very hard.
Pleniér´s Sign[edit | edit source]
The palpation of place, which patient locates as problematic, is very painful.
Blumberg´s Sign[edit | edit source]
You push the irritated place and then let your hands off quickly. The pain is caused by the release of pressure. Also, called rebound tenderness
Rovsing´s Sign[edit | edit source]
This sign is the same as Blumberg, but you push the abdominal wall on the opposite site of the irritation.
Etiology of Peritonitis[edit | edit source]
1) Infectious[edit | edit source]
- Perforation of a hollow organ with unsterile content (e.g.: small and large intestine) – ulcer perforation
- Inflammation (e.g. appendicitis, pancreatitis, cholecystitis, cholangitis)
- Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
- Iatrogenic (e.g. complication of gastroscopy or colonoscopy)
- Open wound
2) Noninfectious[edit | edit source]
- Perforation of a hollow organ, which contains sterile liquid (e.g. gastric juice, bile, urine...)
- Bleeding in abdominal cavity (trauma, rupture of parenchymatous organ – haemoperitoneum)
- Autoimmune inflammation (e.g. Lupus Erythematosus)
Links[edit | edit source]
Related Articles[edit | edit source]
- Lupus Erythematodes
- Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- KLENER, Pavel, et al. Vnitřní lékařství. 4th edition. 2011. ISBN 978-80-7262-705-9.