|corpus luteum, placenta|
Progestogens ( progestins ) form group female sexual hormones with anti- estrogenic and anti- gonadotropic effect . The most important is progesterone .
Progesterone[edit | edit source]
It is formed in the corpus luteum ovaries and placenta ( after 6–8 weeks pregnancy ; 30–40x more ), as intermediate product synthesis of androgens and estrogens also in the cortex of the adrenal gland and in the small amount in testes.
synthesized from cholesterol . over intermediate product pregnenolone , from which it differs in arrangement on A circle . It binds in plasma on proteinaceous carrier . It is fast in the liver . metabolized – has very low biological availability and short biological half time . Due to active metabolism in the liver is progesterone after ineffective .
After conjugation with an acid glucuron ( inactivation ) in the liver form pregnanediol excludes urine .
Effect[edit | edit source]
Progestins lead to:
- development secretory tissue in breasts glands ( acini ) – lactation is , however blocked and starts until after birth u ( violent decrease levels progesterone ), maintained prolactin em
- maturation of the endometrium in the second half menstrual menstrual cycle cycle – transition from proliferative to secretory phase ( zoom volume and size secretion glands and increased content glycogen u ) -> preparation uterine mucosa for reception ova + constriction throats and thickening cervical mucus .
- reduction effects of estrogens on vaginal the wall
- influence peripheral flow rate blood - reduce thermal losses , i.e. increases physical temperature (on average by 0.5& nbsp;° C during luteal phase cycle – indicator ovulation )
Compared to [ [ estrogens ]] they have minimal effect on song plasma proteins ( do not affect plasma fibrinogen levels ) . _ Significantly they influence metabolism sugars and stimulate saving fats .
Progestogens and estrogens acts synergistically – estrogens they initiate creation receptors for progesterone .
Clinical using[edit | edit source]
Main the indication is application as part of contraception . In the long run are also applied they can use to long term suppression of [[ovaries|ovaries ] ] e.g. in endometriosis . They don't have effect on invocation abortion u. Toxicity of progestins is low , though they can to condition rise blood pressure and a drop in HDL.
Like oral contraceptives are used too synthetic steroids – derivatives of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and 17alpha-alkyl- substituted derivatives of 19-nortestosterone, medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) etc. Inhibitory effect on grow cells is used on treatment differentiated endometrial cancer . < noinclude >