Preventive Anti-epidemic Measures
Preventive anti-epidemic measures represent a set of measures aimed at preventing occurrence and spread of infections in a population. Some basic preventive measures are included below.
Preventive Measures[✎ edit | edit source]
|1||Improvement of the hygienic level of population||This includes strict observation of the regulations concerning supply of water, nourishment, production and manipulation of foodstuffs, care of waste water and rubbish etc.|
|2||Vaccination||Selected groups of people are vaccinated against selected infections. The aim is to bring about the highest possible collective immunity against a given infection; this is usually around 85-95%.|
|3||Registration and control of carriers||Persons with typhoid fever, salmonella, dysentery bacillus and diphtheria must be under permanent medical control, be regularly tested microbiologically, and medically treated. They are required to keep to certain conditions according to the instructions of the physician, and a change of address must be notified of. The patient must not undertake any activity that may expose other people to the infection. People living in close contact with a patient must also be under medical supervision.|
|4||Measures Preventing Infection Being Brought into Large Areas/Populations (Collectives)||These measures include introductory examinations before being employed or before entering children's camps or the military. It is of significant importance to ensure that infectious diseases are not brought in any way into schooling establishments. The aim of such measures is to prevent people who can act as a source of infection to affect other people.|
|5||Prophylactic disinfection||Prophylactic disinfection is done in public buildings, mass transport vehicles, and medical establishments, and its aim is to reduce pathogenic germs in the outer milieu. Drinking water and waste water may also be disinfected. Pasteurization of milk is also considered a form of prophylactic disinfection.|
|6||Protection of borders||This represents a system of measures that protect the frontiers or borders against infections being brought in the country from abroad. At airports and harbors, attention must be paid to persons coming from countries that may have an epidemic or endemic contagious disease. People from such countries must have a certificate of vaccinations. If they do not have this certificate or have not been vaccinated fully, they must undergo medical examination, supervision, and quarantine. The diseases that must be quarantined are plague, yellow fever and typhus exanthimaticus. Measures against infection being brought into the country also include concerns about raw and imported animals that may act as a source of infection. The importer must present a certificate or veterinary authorities for the goods being brought in.|
|7||Medical education||Systemic increase of cultural and medical consciousness of all inhabitants is significant for prevention of infectious diseases. Therefore, the basic theories of hygiene and epidemiology should be included in the school education system.|
Links[✎ edit | edit source]
Related Articles[✎ edit | edit source]
Bibliography[✎ edit | edit source]
- BENCKO, Vladimir, et al. Hygiene and Epidemiology : Selected Chapters. 2nd edition. Prague. 2008. ISBN 80-246-0793-X.