Anti-epidemic Measures in the Focus of Infection
Anti-epidemic measures in the focus of infection are carried out at the occurrence of infection within the population. The focus of infection is represented by its source and its nearest neighborhood. The introduced measures have a repressive character, and are included below.
Early and Correct Diagnosis of the Disease[edit | edit source]
This is a basic pre-condition for the execution of quick and effective anti-epidemic measures. It helps to set up the correct diagnosis by properly executed epidemiological history-taking and by properly executed clinical and laboratory examinations, such as microbiological, serological etc.
Notification of the Sick and the Ones Suspected of Infection[edit | edit source]
As soon as the diagnosis is confirmed or when there is a suspicion of an infectious disease, the affected individuals are notified immediately. The physician who examines the patient is responsible for notifying the respective departments. In conformity with legal provisions, the announcement is made through the forms sent to the epidemiological department of the medical establishment responsible for that region. In case of highly contagious diseases or in case of epidemic outbreaks, the Ministry of Health should be informed.
Isolation of the Sick[edit | edit source]
Separation of the sick, re-convalescents and carriers of an infectious organism is done to prevent transmission of infection to susceptible individuals. The physician is responsible for this isolation of patients. The epidemiologist may also isolate the patient by following the list of diseases which require institutional isolation.
Epidemiological Investigation in the Focus of Infection[edit | edit source]
Epidemiological investigation is carried out immediately. A short history is taken from the patients before their transportation to the hospital.
Anti-epidemiological Regime[edit | edit source]
This regime is a set of measures aimed at the liquidation of the focus of infection at the earliest possible opportunity, and they include the following:
- Search for the sick and possibly infected, aimed at detection of further sources of infection.
- Quarantine measures are set up for possibly infected individuals. Such infected individuals are regularly examined by the physician for the entire period of incubation, and increased medical supervision is done to ensure no spread of disease. Quarantine requirements must meet the WHO standards outlined for diseases such as plague, yellow fever, and typhus exanthematicus.
- Focus disinfection is carried in the vicinity of the sick and is again carried after transportation to the hospital and after death of infected individuals.
- Passive and active immunization.
- Chemoprophylaxis with the use of antibiotics in indicated cases, i.e. anti-malaria drugs.
- Control of hygienic measures in the supplu of water and foodstuffs, rubbish removal and disposal of waste water.
- Proper education regarding such matters, i.e. the affected and susceptible individuals should be properly advised about health, hygiene and disease prevention.
Links[edit | edit source]
Related Articles[edit | edit source]
Bibliography[edit | edit source]
- BENCKO, Vladimir, et al. Hygiene and Epidemiology : Selected Chapters. 2nd edition. Prague. 2008. ISBN 80-246-0793-X.
References[edit | edit source]