Myoclonus is made up of violent jerks of muscles with an irregular rhythm, affecting individual muscles on the limbs, trunk, head and face in isolation or at the same time. Unlike tremor, both agonists and antagonists contract simultaneously . Unlike chorea , they are violent and jerky. They can be irregular or rhythmic. Intensity is mainly influenced by emotions.
Classification[edit | edit source]
- According to extent: focal, segmental, multifocal and generalized.
- According to the cause : idiopathic, symptomatic (secondary).
- According to the location of the cause:
- Cortical - sudden jerks of the muscles of the face and limbs, spreading craniocaudally.
- Subcortical (trunk , reticular) – affects eye muscles (opsoclonus) or soft palate.
- Spinal – affects the limbs and trunk.
- Hiccups (singultus) is physiological myoclonus of the diaphragm.
- Asterixis, the so-called negative myoclonus, on the other hand, is caused by a sudden short-term loss of muscle tone.
Etiology[edit | edit source]
- Metabolic disorders
- Pharmacological and toxic effects (lithium , tricyclic antidepressants ...).
- Inflammation of the brain or spinal cord.
- Injuries, demyelination or tumors of the spinal cord
Therapy[edit | edit source]
- Cortical etiology - nootropic (piracetam).
- Subcortical and spinal – GABAergic preparations (clonazepam, valproate).
Links[edit | edit source]
Related articles[edit | edit source]
References[edit | edit source]
- NEVŠÍMALOVÁ, Soňa, Evžen RŮŽIČKA a Jiří TICHÝ. Neurologie. 1. vydání. Praha : Galén, 2005. s. 30-35. ISBN 80-7262-160-2.