LF3 Pathophysiology exam questions 2020

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Last update: Wednesday, 03 Feb 2021 at 3.57 am.

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1. Sleep disorders, EEG


2. Acid-base balance disturbances, overview


3. Acute complications of diabetes mellitus


4. Acute pressure changes in systemic circulation (causes and consequences)

5. Acute stress reaction, cardiovascular and metabolic changes

6. Arrhythmias - overview

Sinus and supraventricular rhythms


AV blocks

7. Balance disturbances: Na, K (regulation, losses, consequences)

E.g.: Hyperaldosteronism

Secondary hyperaldosteronism

Addison's disease


Hypernatremia - 3 patients

8. Blood gas transport disorder – overview

Hypoxia - table

O2 delivery formula:

9. Blood pressure regulation and its disorders

e.g.: Primary hyperaldosteronism

Secondary hyperaldosteronism

Shock - table

Do not forget neuropathies, where also ANS can be impaired...

10. Long lasting starvation consequences,catabolic states (examples), immobilisation

11. Causes and consequences of extracorporeal fluid loss (bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.)

12. Causes and consequences of arterial hypertension

e.g.: Primary hyperaldosteronism

Secondary hyperaldosteronism

13. Causes and consequences of hypoventilation

Respiratory acidosis

Hypoxia - table

Hypoxic hypoxia - V/Q mismatch


14. Causes and consequences of local edemas (compartment syndrome)

15. Causes and consequences of osmolarity changes in extracellular

16. Causes and consequences of potassium level changes

17. Causes of arrhythmia (extra- and intracardial)


18. Circulatory shock states (definition and general division), differences in compensation

19. Compensatory mechanisms during hypovolemic shock

20. Compensatory mechanisms during shock states (comparison and importance)

21. Conduction abnormalities in the heart

AV blocks

22. Disorders of consciousness (general mechanisms of origin, brain death)

Consciousness - quantity

Consciousness - quality


Prolonged loss of consciousness

Brain death

23. Consequences of acute and chronic bleeding (compensation)

Acute bleeding

e.g. circulatory shock

e.g. sideropenic anemia as a consequence of chronic bleeding

e.g. definition of anemia

24. Consequences of chronic stress

25. Poisonings affecting the autonomic nervous system - organophosphates, atropine, muscarinic, cocaine

26. Dehydration (types, causes and consequences)

isotonic dehydration

hypotonic dehydration

hypertonic dehydration

27. Hyperglycemia (causes and consequences)

e.g. in Cushing's disease https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Cushing%27s_disease

28. Disorders of fluid balance (causes and consequences)

29. Disorders of heart signal generation

Sinus and supraventricular = atrial rhythm


30. Distributive shock, mechanisms, compensation

Septic table

31. ECG curve development during heart ischemia

32. Endocrine water metabolism regulation disorders

33. Endothelial dysfunction syndrome

34. Fever (causes and consequences); hyperthermia

35. General causes and consequences of acute organ failure (heart, lungs, kidneys)

36. General signs of inflammation

37. Glycaemia, its regulation and disorders


38. Hypercalcemia, causes and consequences

39. Hypercapnia; causes and consequences

40. Hyperhydration (types, causes and consequences)

isotonic hyperhydration

hypotonic hyperhydration

hypertonic hyperhydration

41. Hypocalcemia, causes and consequences

42. Hyponatremia, causes and consequences

43. Hypovolemic shock (causes, phases)

44. Hypoxic hypoxia (causes and consequences)

Hypoxia - table

Hypoxic hypoxia - V/Q mismatch


45. Hypoxic hypoxia; compensation and adaptation; mountain sickness

e.g. Hypoxia - table

Hypoxic hypoxia - V/Q mismatch


46. Hypoxia, ischemia (comparison), ischemic and stagnant hypoxia

47. Hypoxias (causes and types)

Hypoxias - table

48. Changes in hydration and volemia (definition, causes and consequences, clinical importance)

49. Importance of the fat tissue in health and disease

50. Increased central venous pressure, portal hypertension, chronic venous insufficiency

51. Local tissue reaction to injury (inflammation)

52. Types and causes of syncope

Syncope - types - tLOC

53. Lung gas exchange disorder (ventilation, diffusion, V/Q ratio)

e.g. https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Obstructive_and_restrictive_lung_diseases


54. Metabolic ABB disturbances

55. Principles of examination of the autonomic nervous system (baroreflex, Schellong's test, Valsalva's maneuver)

56. Metabolic syndrome


57. Mineral metabolism changes due endocrine disturbances (K, Na)

58. Obesity (measurement, causes, consequences, complications)

59. Pathophysiology of calcemia, free and bound calcium

60. Perfusion control and its regulation (causes and consequences of the regulation failure)

61. Phases of hypovolemic shock

Phases of shock

62. Pulmonary hypertension (causes and consequences)


63. Qualitative and quantitative alimentation disorders (examples)

64. Quantitative and qualitative disturbances of consciousness (overview)

Consciousness - quantity

Consciousness - quality

65. Relation between ABB and ion concentrations, impact of ion level changes on ABB; examples

66. Respiratory ABB disturbances


67. Secondary hypertension, type, causes (endocrine etc.)

68. Complications of shock states

e.g. decompensatory phase of shock

69. Sleep apnea syndrome (central and peripheral type; consequences)

Comment: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) vs. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) The point is, that in OSA during apnoic pause (no air flow from and out of the nose), you should see chest movement (there is obstruction in retroglossal space). In case of CSA, the problem is with the CNS respiratory centers and there is no obstruction, thus in case of apnoic pause (again no air flow), you will not see chest movement.

70. Types of edema according cause

71. Types of starvation, causes and consequences; refeeding syndrome

72. Manifestations of autonomic innervation disorders in organ systems (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital), Horner's syndrome

73. Vegetative state, locked-in syndrome, brain death

Vegetative state = locked out

Locked-in syndrome

Brain death

74. Ventilation control disorders