LF3 Pathophysiology exam questions 2020

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Last update: Wednesday, 03 Feb 2021 at 3.57 am.


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1. Sleep disorders, EEG

https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Sleep

2. Acid-base balance disturbances, overview


COPD


3. Acute complications of diabetes mellitus

https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Acute_complications_of_diabetes_mellitus

4. Acute pressure changes in systemic circulation (causes and consequences)



5. Acute stress reaction, cardiovascular and metabolic changes

6. Arrhythmias - overview

Sinus and supraventricular rhythms


Extrasystole


AV blocks


7. Balance disturbances: Na, K (regulation, losses, consequences)

E.g.: Hyperaldosteronism


Secondary hyperaldosteronism


Addison's disease


SIADH


Hypernatremia - 3 patients


8. Blood gas transport disorder – overview

Hypoxia - table


O2 delivery formula:


9. Blood pressure regulation and its disorders

e.g.: Primary hyperaldosteronism


Secondary hyperaldosteronism


Shock - table


Do not forget neuropathies, where also ANS can be impaired...

10. Long lasting starvation consequences,catabolic states (examples), immobilisation

11. Causes and consequences of extracorporeal fluid loss (bleeding, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.)


12. Causes and consequences of arterial hypertension

e.g.: Primary hyperaldosteronism


Secondary hyperaldosteronism


13. Causes and consequences of hypoventilation

Respiratory acidosis


Hypoxia - table


Hypoxic hypoxia - V/Q mismatch


Cyanosis


14. Causes and consequences of local edemas (compartment syndrome)


15. Causes and consequences of osmolarity changes in extracellular


16. Causes and consequences of potassium level changes

17. Causes of arrhythmia (extra- and intracardial)

E.g.




18. Circulatory shock states (definition and general division), differences in compensation




19. Compensatory mechanisms during hypovolemic shock


20. Compensatory mechanisms during shock states (comparison and importance)


21. Conduction abnormalities in the heart

AV blocks


22. Disorders of consciousness (general mechanisms of origin, brain death)

Consciousness - quantity


Consciousness - quality


tLOC


Prolonged loss of consciousness


Brain death


23. Consequences of acute and chronic bleeding (compensation)

Acute bleeding

e.g. circulatory shock


e.g. sideropenic anemia as a consequence of chronic bleeding


e.g. definition of anemia


24. Consequences of chronic stress

25. Poisonings affecting the autonomic nervous system - organophosphates, atropine, muscarinic, cocaine

26. Dehydration (types, causes and consequences)

isotonic dehydration


hypotonic dehydration


hypertonic dehydration


27. Hyperglycemia (causes and consequences)

e.g. in Cushing's disease https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Cushing%27s_disease

28. Disorders of fluid balance (causes and consequences)


29. Disorders of heart signal generation

Sinus and supraventricular = atrial rhythm


Extrasystole


30. Distributive shock, mechanisms, compensation



Septic table


31. ECG curve development during heart ischemia



32. Endocrine water metabolism regulation disorders




33. Endothelial dysfunction syndrome

34. Fever (causes and consequences); hyperthermia

35. General causes and consequences of acute organ failure (heart, lungs, kidneys)

36. General signs of inflammation

37. Glycaemia, its regulation and disorders

https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Cushing%27s_disease

38. Hypercalcemia, causes and consequences

39. Hypercapnia; causes and consequences



40. Hyperhydration (types, causes and consequences)

isotonic hyperhydration


hypotonic hyperhydration


hypertonic hyperhydration


41. Hypocalcemia, causes and consequences

42. Hyponatremia, causes and consequences


43. Hypovolemic shock (causes, phases)




44. Hypoxic hypoxia (causes and consequences)

Hypoxia - table


Hypoxic hypoxia - V/Q mismatch


Cyanosis


45. Hypoxic hypoxia; compensation and adaptation; mountain sickness

e.g. Hypoxia - table


Hypoxic hypoxia - V/Q mismatch


Cyanosis


46. Hypoxia, ischemia (comparison), ischemic and stagnant hypoxia


47. Hypoxias (causes and types)

Hypoxias - table


48. Changes in hydration and volemia (definition, causes and consequences, clinical importance)


49. Importance of the fat tissue in health and disease

50. Increased central venous pressure, portal hypertension, chronic venous insufficiency

51. Local tissue reaction to injury (inflammation)

52. Types and causes of syncope

Syncope - types - tLOC


53. Lung gas exchange disorder (ventilation, diffusion, V/Q ratio)

e.g. https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Obstructive_and_restrictive_lung_diseases

https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Control_of_ventilation

54. Metabolic ABB disturbances


55. Principles of examination of the autonomic nervous system (baroreflex, Schellong's test, Valsalva's maneuver)

56. Metabolic syndrome

https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Metabolic_syndrome

57. Mineral metabolism changes due endocrine disturbances (K, Na)


58. Obesity (measurement, causes, consequences, complications)

59. Pathophysiology of calcemia, free and bound calcium

60. Perfusion control and its regulation (causes and consequences of the regulation failure)

61. Phases of hypovolemic shock

Phases of shock


62. Pulmonary hypertension (causes and consequences)

https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Pulmonary_hypertension

63. Qualitative and quantitative alimentation disorders (examples)

64. Quantitative and qualitative disturbances of consciousness (overview)

Consciousness - quantity


Consciousness - quality


65. Relation between ABB and ion concentrations, impact of ion level changes on ABB; examples


66. Respiratory ABB disturbances


COPD


67. Secondary hypertension, type, causes (endocrine etc.)



68. Complications of shock states

e.g. decompensatory phase of shock


69. Sleep apnea syndrome (central and peripheral type; consequences)

Comment: Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) vs. Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) The point is, that in OSA during apnoic pause (no air flow from and out of the nose), you should see chest movement (there is obstruction in retroglossal space). In case of CSA, the problem is with the CNS respiratory centers and there is no obstruction, thus in case of apnoic pause (again no air flow), you will not see chest movement.

70. Types of edema according cause


71. Types of starvation, causes and consequences; refeeding syndrome

72. Manifestations of autonomic innervation disorders in organ systems (cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, urogenital), Horner's syndrome

73. Vegetative state, locked-in syndrome, brain death

Vegetative state = locked out


Locked-in syndrome


Brain death


74. Ventilation control disorders

https://www.wikilectures.eu/w/Control_of_ventilation