Information and information institutions

From WikiLectures

Information[edit | edit source]

  • information surrounds us all our lives
  • there is no clear definition
  • object of research in many fields – information theory, cybernetics, mathematics, computer science, physics, chemistry, information science, social communication, linguistics, semiotics...
  • psychophysiological phenomenon and process

Definition[edit | edit source]

  1. Philosophy
    • Potentially communicable knowledge about objective reality
    • The meaning assigned to images, data and the human entities formed from them. Information represents the degree of order of systems in contrast to entropy, i.e. the degree of disorder.
  2. Social communication
    • Every sign that has meaning for both the communicator and the receiver (Lamser)
  3. Cybernetics
    • A name for the content of what is exchanged with the external world when we adapt to it and act upon it with our adaptation (N.Wiener)
  4. Mathematics
    • The message content, which is defined as the negative binary logarithm of its probability
  5. Sufficient for the layman
    • Shared, communicated message, message, knowledge
    • Information is nothing if not shared – unshared information loses its value

What can be informative and why?[edit | edit source]

  • Information society → information needs → information barriers → information institutions → information worker → information services → information sources, information sources → information systems → information cycle
  • Information ethics, information security, information half-time, information policy, information industry

Information Society[edit | edit source]

Based on:

  • information, knowledge
  • the ability to acquire, analyze and use information
  • integration of information and communication technologies into all areas of social life

In practice this means:

  • internet on every corner, mobile phones, working from home, e-learning, video-conferencing, e-shopping, e-banking
  • efficient, fast, more accessible information flows
  • And who is supposed to know and navigate in all this?

Information flow - information cycle (scientific information)[edit | edit source]

  • author - proofreader - publisher
  • acquisition, storage, search (libraries and other information institutions)
  • classification and processing of information
  • building your own information archive
  • analysis, processing
  • own presentation = author = creation of a new source of information

Information source[edit | edit source]

  • means of social communication consisting of an information carrier and a set of fixed or transmitted data or information on it (in it).
  • types according to processing
    • primary, secondary, tertiary
  • types according to the method of recording information
    • written, visual, audio, audiovisual, electronic, multimedia
  • types according to the form of publication
    • printed, electronic, micrographic
  • types according to degree of publication
    • published, secret, internal
  • types according to continuity in publishing
    • periodic, serial, one-off

Primary (original) information sources[edit | edit source]

  • directly recorded author's thoughts in natural language (this is specific information)
  • personal contact
  • conferences, correspondence, invisible college
  • monographs, teaching texts - a comprehensive form of information on a specialized topic
    • encyclopedias, manuals, dictionaries
    • professional journals
    • factual databases - directories, code lists, statistics...
    • special literature − standards, patents, legislative literature
    • gray literature − materials that are difficult to obtain in the usual ways (research reports, conference materials, diploma theses, etc.)

Secondary sources of information[edit | edit source]

  • inform in an abbreviated way about the existence of the primary document (bibliographic record)
  • they facilitate orientation and speed up access to original sources
  • catalogs – capture the holdings of libraries and information centers, the production of publishers (previously paper-based – now electronic)
  • bibliographic databases – capture the production of publishers (records of articles from professional journals, monographs, chapters from monographs...)

Cataloging record[edit | edit source]

  • provides information about the processed document
  • serves to identify, search and obtain it
  • composed of descriptive, substantive, or location data

Anatomical atlas of man / Frank H. Netter; John T. Hansen, consulting editor; [translated by Libor Páč, Petr Dubový]. – Ed. 2. expand – Prague: Grada Publishing, 2005. – 542 pp., color. ill. 40 pp. - ISBN 80-247-1153-2.

MDT: 611

MeSH thesaurus term: anatomy, atlases Call number: K-54618 Copies: 3180054439 - in person

Information institutions[edit | edit source]

  • they respond to society's information needs and participate in the process of satisfying them
  • libraries and information centers
  • publishers and publishers
  • booksellers
  • distributors
  • database producers, operators and brokers

Libraries and their services[edit | edit source]

  • acquire, process, store and mediate information (both printed and electronic) based on their mission and user needs
  • rental services - attendance, absenteeism, MVS
  • bibliographic services – catalog, creation of own DB
  • search services
  • making electronic information resources available
  • reference services - user navigation
  • reprographic, graphic and editing services
  • Libraries - links
    • ÚVI 1.LF UK ( ) - offers options for reservations, online catalog + option to check your account, extension via e-mail, notification of expiration of loan period
    • National Library of the Czech Republic ( )
    • National Technical Library ( )
    • National Medical Library ( )
    • the library of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic ( )
    • faculty library of the UK ( )

Links[edit | edit source]

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

Source[edit | edit source]

STEJSKALOVÁ, Jitka – KRAJÍČKOVÁ,. Základní odborná terminologie. Informační instituce, jejich služby a webovské stránky. [online]. [cit. 2012-03-10]. <>.