Head parasympathetic

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Sympathetic (red) and parasympathetic (green)

The cranial parasympathetic is part of the parasympathetic autonomic nervous system. The system contains visceromotor and viscerosensitive fibers, ensures the perception of visceral pain and is an important afferent pathway for some reflexes (coughing, voiding, etc.). The mediator is acetylcholine.

Nuclei and functions[edit | edit source]

The parasympathetic in the head region originates from several nuclei in the brainstem, mesencephalon and rhombencephalon:

Nucleus oculomotorius accessorius[edit | edit source]

  • ((Edinger-Westphal) – parasympathetic nucleus of the n. oculomotorius
  • stored in the mesencephalon
  • preganglionic vfibers ramus ad ganglion ciliare to ganglion ciliare (Schacheri) via r. inferior nervi oculomotorii
  • postganglionic fibers conduct as nn. ciliares breves to the eyeball, where they innervate them. sphincter pupillae together with m. ciliaris
  • function: parasympathetic fibers cause miosis (narrowing) and near lens accommodation, sympathetic fibers mydriasis (dilatation)
  • ggl. ciliare also receives sensitive fibers from the eyeball that innervate the cornea

Nucleus salivatorius superior[edit | edit source]

  • the dorsal nucleus of the n. facialis located in the rhombencephalon in the center of the fossa rhomboidea
  • preganglionic parasympathetic fibers follow the path of:

  • ganglion pterygopalatinum in the fossa pterygopalatina below the basis cranii externa
  1. n. petrosus major, which reaches the ganglion pterygopalatinum (Meckeli), connects here and continues postganglionic through n. zygomaticus and a connector to n. lacrimalis. It innervates the lacrimal glands, the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity and the mucous glands and vessels of the hard and soft palate.
  2. n. petrosus profundus – sympathetic fibers from the plexus caroticus internus

the connection creates the n. canalis pterygoidei, which through the canalis pterygoidei directs to the ggl. pterygopalatinum

Viscerosensitive taste fibers from the isthmus faucium, so enter it, but they just pass through the ganglion and go to the n. facialis and through it to the ncl. tractus solitarii

  1. chorda tympani, together with the parasympathetic, sensory fibers of taste also lead, enter n. lingualis (branch of n. V) and the ganglion submandibulare, postganglionic innervation includes the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands

  • ganglion submandibulare – 2–3mm, at the upper edge of gl. submandibulare under the n. lingualis, the rami ganglionares ad ganglion submandibulare separates from n. lingualis
  • function: parasympathetic stimulates the secretion of the mucous glands of the nasal cavity, palate, oral cavity and salivary glands (sublingual and submandibular )

Nucleus salivatorius inferior[edit | edit source]

  • nucleus of the n. glossopharyngeus nerve in the brainstem below the base of the 4th cerebral ventricle at the interface of the medulla oblogata and pons
  • preganglionic fibers go in the n. tympanicus passing through the middle ear cavity, it receives sympathetic fibers nn. caroticotympanici, continues as n. petrosus minor up to ganglion oticum (Arnoldi) at n. mandibularis
  • Postganglionic to the n. auriculotemporalis for the glandula parotis and to the n. buccalis for the facial mucous glands

  • ganglion oticum - under the basis cranii externa at the foramen ovale, medially from the n. mandibularis from n. trigeminus
  • function: stimulation of saliva secretion in the glands

Nucleus posterior nervi vagi[edit | edit source]

  • Nucleus n. vagi nucleus in the lower part of the fossa rhomboidea
  • preganglionic fibers run with the n. vagus to the target organs, in the wall of which they connect to postganglionic fibres
  • thus includes rr. pharyngei, rr.cardiaci, rr. oesophagei, rr. tracheales, rr. bronchiales, rr. pulmonales, rr. gastrici, rr. coeliaci, rr. hepatici and rr. renales
  • sthey go to the respiratory tract and to the lungs – n. laryngeus superior and reccurrens
  • rr. coeliaci go together with the sympathetic in a mixed plexus around the vessels (plexus aorticus abdominalis etc.)
  • n. vagus and its parasympathetic fibers end at the level of theflexura coli sinistra – the so-called. Cannonův-Boehm point, where the sacral parasympaticus connetcs
  • separate parasympathetic fibers go to the heart – rr. cardiaci cervicales superiores et inferiores and rr. cardiaci thoracici, ends in the plexus cardiacus
  • function: parasympathetically affects the activity of innervated organs, i.e. mainly increases the activity of the digestive tract and slows down the heart activity
  • it also guides the viscerosensitivity of the heart and the beginning of the aorta, where it perceives the receptor level of blood pressure

Links[edit | edit source]

Related articles[edit | edit source]

References[edit | edit source]

  • ČIHÁK, Radomír – GRIM, Miloš. Anatomie 3. 2., upr. a dopl edition. Praha : Grada, 2004. 673 pp. pp. 559-560. ISBN 80-247-1132-X.