Formulation of hypotheses

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Definition[edit | edit source]

  • A Hypothesis is an assumption whose validity we must verify before proceeding with further scientific work.
  • Provisional theory is based on descriptive research/statistics, clinical observations, analytical studies, laboratory research, theoretical modeling.[1]

Hypothesis formation methods[edit | edit source]

Differential method[edit | edit source]

  • If the frequency of occurrence of a disease in two comparative populations (sets) is significantly different'' and if it is possible to identify a factor that is present in one set and not in the other, then we can label this factor as 'cause of disease.
  • Example: higher incidence of ca of the cervix in married women - and vice versa lower' incidence in nuns.

Match Method[edit | edit source]

  • If we can find a common factor' in a number of different populations that are characterized by the occurrence of a disease, then this factor could be the cause of the disease.
  • Example: Semmelweis came to the conclusion that the cause of teenage fever was some kind of "dead poison" found 'on the hands of the attending obstetric staff.

Method of analogy[edit | edit source]

  • If there are ``certain similarities in the distribution of the observed disease with another disease for which we have more complete information, it would be possible to judge that both diseases have ``some common causes. We use a deductive way of thinking.

Companion Difference Method[edit | edit source]

  • The change in the frequency of the disease occurs in parallel with the change in intensity of the given factor.
  • Example: incidence of lung carcinoma increases with the number of cigarettes smoked'.[2]

Links[edit | edit source]

ws:Formulace hypotéz

Related Articles[edit | edit source]

  1. TIMMRECK, Thomas C.. An Introduction to Epidemiology. 3. edition. Sudbury : John and Bartlett Publishers, 2002. pp. 205-210. ISBN 0763700606.
  2. BENCKO, Vladimir, et al. Epidemiology, teaching texts for students of the 1st Faculty of Medicine UK, Prague. 2. edition. Prague : Charles University in Prague – Karolinum Publishing House, 2002. pp. 16-24. ISBN 80-246-0383-7.