Examination and important pathological changes of the lips and oral cavity

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Inspection of the oral cavity must be performed as a cancer screening.

Lips[edit | edit source]

We assess:

  • color,
  • swellings,
  • splits,
  • ulcers,
  • blisters.

For example

Oral Cavity[edit | edit source]

Bad breath:

  • foetor hepaticus – liver failure,
  • acetone – diabetes mellitus,
  • ammonia – uremia.

Gingiva[edit | edit source]

We assess firstly by aspection. During the examination we can find signs that could be warning flags of a serious general disease.


  • leukemia,
  • marrow attenuation,
  • agranulocytosis.

Color stripes:

  • in case of heavy metal poisoning.

Gingival bleeding:

Hyperplastic gingiva:

  • antiepileptics,
  • pregnancy.

Teeth[edit | edit source]

Firstly we assess the overall condition of teeth. Color of teeth is important for the diagnosis of diseases.

'Overall condition:

  • dentition complete/incomplete,
  • own/teeth prosthesis.
Color Cause
black metal poisoning
black-brown tobacco
yellow-grey tetracycline
purple hypermanganese solution
greenish erythroblastosis fetalis

Tongue[edit | edit source]

The tongue protrudes in middle line physiologically. Jazyk fyziologicky plazí ve střední čáře. We have to focus mainly on size, position, color, papillae, mobility, impressions and ulcers.

Coating – is always presented – food residues, bacteria, endothelium.

Color Causes
white hydrated
brown dehydrated
dark antibiotics
strawberry Scarlet fever
red-varnished liver cirrhosis
red-atrofic Hunter glossitis


  • peripheral - glossoplegia,
  • central – always on one side – on steam, radical

Other pathologies, e.g..:

Mucosa of Oral Cavity[edit | edit source]

  • CandidiasisCandida albicans – white tufts which are well wiped from the mucosa at the beginning, later they combine to form of a gray coatings which adhere to the mucosa
  • Graphite spots – Addison´s disease

Tonsils[edit | edit source]

Tonsils are trophic or hypertrophic. There might be coating or stones, sometimes there is visible redness. It is important to assess whether the tonsils are symmetrical.

Pharynx[edit | edit source]

The pharynx is physiologically smooth and wet, during inflammation the nodules are formed and it si congested.

Odkazy[edit | edit source]

Použitá literatura[edit | edit source]

Kategorie:Vnitřní lékařství Kategorie:Interní propedeutika