Examination and important pathological changes of the lips and oral cavity
Inspection of the oral cavity must be performed as a cancer screening.
Lips[edit | edit source]
- Muave – in cyanosis;
- pale – anemia;
- stomatitis angularis – cracked lips in the corners – in Ariboflavinosis, acute Dental caries|;
- herpes labialis.
Oral Cavity[edit | edit source]
- foetor hepaticus – liver failure,
- acetone – diabetes mellitus,
- ammonia – uremia.
Gingiva[edit | edit source]
We assess firstly by aspection. During the examination we can find signs that could be warning flags of a serious general disease.
- marrow attenuation,
- in case of heavy metal poisoning.
Teeth[edit | edit source]
Firstly we assess the overall condition of teeth. Color of teeth is important for the diagnosis of diseases.
- dentition complete/incomplete,
- own/teeth prosthesis.
Tongue[edit | edit source]
The tongue protrudes in middle line physiologically. Jazyk fyziologicky plazí ve střední čáře. We have to focus mainly on size, position, color, papillae, mobility, impressions and ulcers.
Coating – is always presented – food residues, bacteria, endothelium.
- peripheral - glossoplegia,
- central – always on one side – on steam, radical
Other pathologies, e.g..:
- bitten – epilepsy,
- Hunter glossitis – during anemia of deficiency Vitamin B12,
- macroglossia – acromegaly,
- xerostomia – dry mouth,
- tongue ulcers:
Mucosa of Oral Cavity[edit | edit source]
- Candidiasis – Candida albicans – white tufts which are well wiped from the mucosa at the beginning, later they combine to form of a gray coatings which adhere to the mucosa
- Graphite spots – Addison´s disease
Tonsils[edit | edit source]
Tonsils are trophic or hypertrophic. There might be coating or stones, sometimes there is visible redness. It is important to assess whether the tonsils are symmetrical.
Pharynx[edit | edit source]
The pharynx is physiologically smooth and wet, during inflammation the nodules are formed and it si congested.